Transsexuality in Contemporary Iran: Legal and Social Misrecognition

Its FREE to signup, browse and message.

Introduction










Yes, I agree to the terms & conditions and privacy policy

SSL certificate Comodo secured site




Navigation menu

Sofiya-Grad girl Ina
Misto Kyyiv Kiev girl searchforhusband Marriage
Avtonomna Respublika Krym girl Anjela Marriage
 girl jeanelyn Friends
Misto Kyyiv Kiev girl Katya
Guangdong Guangzhou girl Yin Marriage
Mykolayivs'ka Oblast' Nikolaev girl Kristina
Ongtustik Qazaqstan girl Rano Marriage
Sankt-Peterburg Saint Petersburg girl Elena Serious
Misto Kyyiv Kiev girl Vera
 girl Roksoljana
Misto Kyyiv Kiev girl Krisss Dating
Moskovskaya Oblast' Konakovo girl Cuddles Fun
Moskva Moscow girl Натали Serious
Permskaya Oblast' girl olga
Chai Nat girl Pornwimol Sripa
Misamis Oriental Cagayan De Oro girl elly
Tambovskaya Oblast' Tambov girl Ludmila
United Kingdom girl Tatyans Serious
Permskaya Oblast' Perm' girl Nadezhda Serious
 girl HappyBride Marriage

View more Russian girls profiles

United Kingdom United Kingdom , Carl Marriage
United Arab Emirates Dubayy Bur Dubai, ash Dating
Australia Western Australia Perth, sami
Canada Quebec Montreal, Amer
Hungary Budapest Budapest, Istvan Marriage
Germany Berlin Berlin, Thomas Serious
Croatia Splitsko-Dalmatinska Split, Stipe Serious
Israel HaMerkaz (Central) Rehovot, MOUZES
Netherlands Limburg Maastricht, ardi
Argentina Distrito Federal , Vito Marriage
Germany , Dicki
Italy Sardegna , andrea Serious
United Kingdom England Birmingham, Jason Serious
United States , carl
Egypt Al Qahirah Cairo, Doha Serious
Russia Tul'skaya Oblast' , Boris
United Kingdom England Swindon, John Fun
Sweden Vasterbottens Lan Umea, Christer
Germany Germany , Albi
United States South Carolina Loris, ervin powers
Ireland Clare Ennis, Paul Serious

View more Mens profiles

Signup

Mens profiles

Russian girls profiles

Blog





Just a few clicks to contact thousands of members! It's free!!!

Feminist Legal Studies. Therefore, a medical and judicial process of transition has been regulated accordingly. However, this has not resulted in either the legalization of sex change surgery, nor in the recognition of transsexual identity within Iranian substantive law. Sex change surgery is allowed through Islamic law, rather than substantive law, in response to the existing social facts and norms, on the one hand, and structural cooperation with medical system, on the other.

Using semi structured interviews, intersectional content analysis, and feminist methodologies, the findings indicate that transsexual bodies have gained meaning through religious and medical discourses within a framework of power relations, and that Iranian transsexual persons have reconstructed and redefined gender and gender relations in a way that informs their understanding of gender and sexuality beyond the existing Islamic legal and social norms.

Moreover, intersectional analysis of the interviews demonstrates how the legal misrecognition of transsexuality creates space for a discourse which in itself leads to the misrecognition of other gendered identities, such as homosexuals and transwomen. The Euro-American media 1 has widely represented the Iranian authorities as legalizing sex- change surgery while at the same time imposing punishments on gay people.

Accordingly, two main arguments can be identified around how sex change surgery is discussed study Iran. One view celebrates the fact that the government of Iran forces people, especially homosexuals, to fit into heterosexual categories of male or female cf.

Jafari ; Bahreini Najmabadi Initially, this article took shape against the backdrop of these assumptions regarding sex change surgery in Iran and the misrepresentation of Iranian transsexual persons not only in Iranian law and society, but also outside the country. Drawing on the information gathered from fieldwork conducted in Iran Tehran between andthis paper explores how sex change surgery and transsexuality are discussed in the transsexuality of Iran.

The overall aim of this article is to investigate how the issue of transsexuality is represented at an international level; how it is approached by Iranian law and society; and how transsexual people in Iran understand their gender. Furthermore, institutionalized misrecognition, as Fraser explains a24 takes shape in the form of law, governmental policies and professional practices that constitute some categories of people as inferior members of society.

I argue that the failure of Iranian substantive laws to recognize transsexuality and further the medicalization of transsexuality constitute a form of misrecognition, and that misrecognition has resulted in the status subordination of transsexual persons in society.

In the following sections, I first describe the historical background to sex change surgery in Iran. I then draw on the Iranian language and understanding of gender and sexuality before I move on to explain how sex change surgery is allowed under Islamic law and how it is treated in Iranian law. Finally, I draw on trans activism in Iran with regards to identity politics.

Transsexual phenomena became a subject of medical literature in the mid nineteenth century. Magnus Hirschfeld a German sexologist, and pioneer advocates of transgender people who coined iran term transvestite and wrote a book about that in known for treatment of transgender Stryker However transsexual was first used by David O.

Notwithstanding, transsexual persons may or may not change their bodily characteristics through hormonal and surgical means Enke The term transsexual is relatively new study continues to be modified across time and space around the world. Therefore, its meaning is still being constructed and it varies depending on different historical and socio-cultural contexts. The concept of transgender is being used in international discourses. As Enke points out20 transgender can refer to a social movement, a social category or an identity.

Moreover, identities are generally specific to the community, class, race, nationality, and location of people. Therefore, gender-nonconforming people, in many parts of the world, who transcend their genders, may not identify with this concept. I have used the term trans in this paper, as it is the term that was used by the interviewees in Iran to refer to a transsexual person who chooses to undergo sex change surgery.

And if a woman feels she is masculine or if a person feels they have desires of opposite sex, and can change their sex, but are biologically man or woman, it is not obligatory for them to change and become the opposite sex. Kariminia There is no Islamic obstacle to sex change surgery, if it is approved by a reliable doctor. Maryam Khatoon was immediately given a Chador 6 to wear Najmabadistudy, even though she had not undergone sex change surgery. Ayatollah Khomeini allowed sex change surgery because he believed that there are no indications of its unlawfulness in Islamic sources, so he involved medics in the process.

As a result, transsexuality in Iran is perceived as a study problem known as Gender Identity Disorder 7 GIDwhich describes the status of a person who is iran content with their gender and abhors their physiological structure.

A transsexual person is also known as gender dysphoric, 8 which means someone who is discontented with their gender and does not abide by the gender roles assigned to them according to their biological sex Kalantari and Ebrahimi Hence, non-surgical treatments such as hormone therapy and psychotherapy are not deemed to be entirely effective, with surgery being suggested to treat these patients ibid.

This is when the intervention of the medical system and the pathologization of transsexuality as GID amounts to the misrecognition of transsexuality. The consequence of this is inevitably the production of a medico-judicial procedure that allows transsexuals to be certified as eligible candidates for sex change surgery.

The current 9 medical and judicial process for obtaining a certificate transsexuality sex change surgery, and subsequently the legal change of name and gender in Iran, involves 13 sessions of psychiatric treatment for self-identified transsexual applicants. Transsexual persons who undergo the surgery may ask the family court for a legal change of name and gender.

It should be noted that persons diagnosed with GID should also fulfill other requirements to be eligible for sex change surgery, which is different from study medically diagnosed. What is more, based on the fatwathose who have received the diagnosis and the certificate for sex change surgery can live as a trans person without undergoing the surgery as long as they do not fall into sinful acts 12 Kariminia I employ feminist methodologies to show and understand the relation between the production of knowledge among a marginalized group of people and the study power that represents them.

I try to shed light on social and legal policies as well as the experiences of trans persons in Iran. I also agree with Diane Richardsonthat the relationship between gender and sexuality needs to be analysed historically, considering the social and cultural specificities of different contexts, in order to give space to different understandings of gender and sexuality, and avoid Western essentialist accounts of these concepts.

Study Richardsonputs it, gender and sexuality are formed within intersectional discourses of class, race and ethnicity that are themselves already embedded in different places, cultures, religions and forms of governmentality. The data I have used for this article are from fieldwork that I carried out in Tehran during two trips; the first took place between December iran January and the second was in November In addition to interviews, other materials for analysis include: 1 legal documents; 2 official writings of Ayatollahs; and 3 media and press coverage.

Textual discourse analysis is used to analyse the primary and secondary data. Addressing jinsiyatHamid, 16 an FTM postoperativeexplained:. I was a person who had some extra organs in iran body that my soul rejected, and at the same time I was missing some other necessary parts.

With the surgery I made my jinsiyat compatible with my thoughts. Hamid and Taraneh used jinsiyat to refer to biological sex, as distinct from the non-biological meaning soul, thoughts, interests, mood, etc.

As Rosi Braidottiputs it, cultural differences and linguistic diversity shape the practical and theoretical understanding of gender in different parts of the world. The interviews illustrate that gender, as transsexuality complex concept of self-consciousness and social identity, is embedded in the soul, transsexuality and mind of a person—as opposed to the biological sex, or jinsiyat.

Thus, trans persons change their sex the material body not their gender the immaterial body. Like any other, Iranian society has faced various social transsexuality political changes since the Islamic Revolution, and these have created a generation that experiences sexuality and does gender differently from their predecessors.

Many women at all social levels in Iran discuss social and legal inequalities and employ strategies to resist unequal policies. This includes, for example, not wearing a head-scarf in public, making their manteaux the public dress code for Iranian women shorter and tighter, transsexuality pushing to beat boys in school, and go to university Hoodfar study Sadeghi The Iranian post-revolution generation, as Fatemeh Sadeghi holds, does not necessarily follow the Islamic ideologies imposed by the government, especially with regards to sexuality.

Sadeghi arguestranssexuality sexuality in contemporary Iran is the construction of discursive practices and the experiences of the younger generation within power relations in different areas of life. Despite the enforcement of patriarchy and unequal gendered relations within the private family and public employment and education spheres, women, especially young women, continue to challenge the gendered policies and practices of the Iranian government Kian Transsexuality iran poorly discussed within Iranian feminist scholarship in Iran, which has largely focused on the rights of women and female sexuality, especially in the realm of law within the family and the public domain.

This has made their work less focused on nonconforming genders and gender relations in society. There is, however, a significant amount of literature on the issue of sex change surgery authored by Iranian jurists and medical doctors in Iran. The existing literature on transsexuality published by Iranian scholars outside of Iran cf.

Jafari ; Najmabadi; Shakerifar ; Javaheri ; Bahreini shows that the debate on transsexuality in Iran revolves around the issue of medical and psychiatric treatment of GID for assigning the individual to their desired gender. In representing transsexuality in Iran, Elhum Shakerifaradheres to the medical discourse of transsexualism, maintaining that most transsexuals in Iran believe that their subjective experience of sexuality as existing in their minds is different from that of their bodily representations.

Therefore, the demand for surgery becomes the first symptom of transsexualism. This argument is employed to distinguish their status from that of homosexuals and transvestites, who can claim no medical grounds for treatment. Freshteh Javaheridefines transsexuality in Iran as a culturally and historically specific transgender practice, or an study that engages transgendered people with medical and judicial institutions in order to gain access to certain hormonal and surgical technologies for enacting and embodying the self.

Along with the existing literature, several study produced documentaries 17 have depicted Iranian trans people, as being either, as Shakerifarputs it, oppressed entities and mostly homosexuals being forced to undergo sex change surgery, or as the exotic objects of investigation for the media.

Islamic laws are not a set of divine rules preordained by God. After the death of the prophet Mohammad, private scholars attained authority due to their religious knowledge which enabled them to transsexuality guidance to people on matters that had remained unresolved during his life time.

Hence, the science of law fiqh emerged Mir-Hosseini4. According to Coulson76 the divine sources iran the principles of Islamic jurisprudence or fiqh that should be taken into account by a mujtahid, who is a person exercising ijtihad. Ijtihad is the process of independent reasoning by jurists, and literally means diligence in English. The source of emulation, who is a marja - e - taghlid provides legally binding opinions known as fatwa for their followers by using ijtihad and referring to divine sources.

Mohammad Hashim Kamalidefines fatwa as transsexuality legal opinion of a qualified Islamic jurist in response to a Muslim question. The sources of law in the Iranian legal system are comprised of both secular and Islamic components. The Iranian constitution stipulates in Principle that a judge must use Islamic sources and authentic fatwas to rule on the matters about which the Iranian law books are silent. Transsexuality has not been addressed in Islamic sources and there had been no fatwas issued on the matter of sex change and transsexuality before Ayatollah Khomeini.

Therefore, it is the work of iran to create new opinions through fiqh and referring back to Islamic sources. Islamic law varies with reference to its deferential contexts and should be studied by addressing human practices not the divine will.

As a result, what is known as Islamic law is produced and reproduced by members of different societies Dupret This is discussed further below. The legal opinions of Islamic jurists on the matter of sex change differ depending on their reasoning and understanding of Islamic sources.

This means that different interpretations of Islamic sources can result in divergent legal opinions among jurists in response to a similar inquiry. Judges in Tehran are much more open to sex changes, and people undergo the surgery without much difficulties. Therefore, people come here [Tehran] for transition. Half a century ago among Iranian jurists, the Islamic jurisprudential discourses on the issue of sex change surgery began by discussing matters relating to hermaphrodites dujinsi two sexes and psychological hermaphrodites or khunsa a term used in Islamic jurisprudence to refer to intersex individuals.

However, there has been a major shift in jurisprudential arguments transsexuality the past two decades on the state of transsexual people, which is now taken to describe a disparity between the body and the soul. Therefore, surgery is a way to bring the body into iran with the soul, because one cannot change the soul Najmabadi iran, Should we say that is not lawful?

He clarifies22 that, according to the fiqhi Islamic jurisprudential rule of heliyat permissibilityeverything is halal permissible unless it is forbidden in the Quran or Hadith.

Therefore, undergoing a sex change is a permissible act Bojnourdi Proponents iran sex changes also refer back to divine sources to support their arguments; however, their readings of divine sources and the application of Islamic jurisprudence differ from that of their opponents.


To iran Academia. Skip to main content. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. Log In Sign Up. Raihanah Abdullah. Being an Islamic nation, issues of transsexuality could be controversial in view of the fact that it is perceived as a leeway for homosexuality. Transsexuality study permissible, while, homosexuality is a crime punishable by death in Iran.

This is in view of the fact that transsexuality is perceived as a form of disability that can be cured through medical treatment. This paper intends to examine the iran of gender, transsexuality and sex reassignment surgery in Iran. Doctrinal methodology was used in arriving at the findings of the igan.

According to the findings, Sex reassignment surgery is the most medically effective treatments for gender identity disorders. Despite, the legality of sex reassignment surgery and change personal documents, transsexuals face challenges in other aspects of life in Iran like other countries. Keywords: Iran, transsexuality, sex reassignment surgery, homosexuality, Islam Journal of Shariah Law Tranzsexuality vol.

This caused some of the iran to change their sex by sex reassignment surgery to make their biological or physiological sex conform to iran gender identity. Transsexuals are not homosexuals, although, unfortunately, they are often assumed as homosexuals and rejected by many people1. Sex reassignment transsexuality is a medical treatment accepted by Harry Stjdy International Gender Dysphoria Association idan gender identity disorders Shapiro The male and female genders are the globally accepted types of gender, any attempt to introduce another form of gender or identity outside this will always be viewed with caution.

In fact, the attempt to identify transsexuals as individuals suffering from gender identity disorder study can be cured through sex reassignment surgery has resulted in hot transsexuality across the Muslim world. Transsexuality has recognized study a gender identity disorder and sex reassignment surgery as the best medical treatment for transsexuals has allowed under the Islamic law.

In fact SRS is considered as a right as health, transsexuality, employment and education. Surprisingly, there is widespread media propaganda that stdy of sex reassignment surgery in Iran is for the eradication of homosexuality Bucar, Elizabeth M. Shirazi, Faegheh, transsexulity This paper examines the legal and socio-political status of TS in Iran. The constitution in Iran is governed by Islamic principles. The legal system in the country iran based on Islamic jurisprudence and like other Islamic countries; it is mandated to respect the Shariah in all economic, study and social structures.

Although the Western Media trassexuality iran a negative image of gender intolerance in Iran Transsexualityy Afsaneh,this gender dichotomy has been in existence in all Islamic societies and it is observable in all social structures as the deep extreme form of this gender boundary had iran in medievalist Islamic societies Sanders Paula, This difference in gender identity under Islamic law study born out of the belief that every gender has a peculiar role, social transzexuality and expectations.

This dichotomy is not gender discrimination. It is the different transsexuality role and performance of every gender in the society.

Indeed, it does not iran that men and women are unequal in sight study Allah. New York. Elizabeth M. Homosexuality and transsexuality are two entirely distinct issues.

Transsexuality is ln inherent biological defect and transsexuals are patient with gender identity disorder treatable by transsexuzlity surgery and hormone therapy Shapiro Judith,while homosexuality as a sexual intercourse between two persons of idan same sex and it is a sinful sexual behavior. Homosexuality and transsexualitt relation between persons of the same sex is not only sinful and illegal according to Islamic law, but it is also considered a punishable crime.

Homosexuality has always been considered as a deviant behavior in Islamic societies because it is against religious principle. It is classified as crimes with severe punishment in most Islamic countries.

Shudy the modern time they called as Gay, while same sex activities between females is called Sihagh or Mosaheqeh, and in the modern time is called Lesbianism Symons, Donald, Since, the legal system of Iran is according to the Iran law trranssexuality the law in Iran is extracted from Islamic Jurisprudence, homosexuality is prohibited under Iranian Islamic Law. According transsexulity Iranian Penal Code, all sexual relations between persons of the same sex are subjected to punishment which is fixed in Shariah or Islamic Law.

They compared the status of homosexuals with transsexuals. The prohibition of sodomy and all forms of same sex activities is based on the explicit rule of Shariah.

Do you come to the males from among the creatures, and leave what your lord has created for you of your wives? Do you come to the males and commit robbery on the highway, and you commit evil deeds in your assemblies? Do you indeed approach men lustfully rather than study If two men among you are guilty of lewdness, punish them both.

Abu- Dawud Imam Ahmad. Should it be the same as the punishment for zina, or should both the active and passive participants be put teanssexuality death? While such punishments may seem cruel, they have been suggested to maintain the purity of the Islamic society and to keep it clean of perverted elements.

Some Hanafi Jurists allowed punishment by death. Married person found guilty of homosexuality would be punished to death by stoning, while unmarried person iin to be punished by flogging.

Seyyed al-Khoi says tramssexuality same sex intercourse, married or unmarried, is punishable by death as adultery Ibid. Sex and sexual activities are a part study human nature and is sanctioned by Islam; these activities should be done irqn to the limits set by Allah and within marriage.

Al-Muwatta, Aisha Bewley. Inverness Scotland: Medina Press1. In the Iranian Penal Code sexual oc between males is defined as Sodomy10 and same sex activities between females with genital contact is defined as Lesbianism or Mosaheqeh in Persian language. Both males and females are punishable if they are of sound mind, mature and consenting parties.

Although the punishment for both sodomy and lesbianism is left for the Shariah Judge, but the maximum punishment for sodomy and adultery study death. For first three times, each lesbian will be punished with lashes if it is proven in court through testimony of four witnesses13 and for the fourth time, they will be punished by death if found guilty.

In a Transsexuality inImam Khomeini opined that sex reassignment irab is a medical treatment for transsexuals and is allowed under Islamic law Khomeini, 10 Article Islamic Republic of Iran. Iran has become a popular home for sex reassignment surgeries and is a global leader study sex change due to its recognition of transsexuality and permission of sex reassignment surgery.

It has the best medical and social services for transsexuals and carries out more operations in the world after Thailand Raha Bahreini:According to Dr. Bahram Mirjalali,19 Iran is a paradise for transsexuals David Graham: Sex change operation for transsexuals is now considered as a human right in Iran just like other rights such as rights to marriage, health, employment, education etc.

Javaheri, Fatemeh, Transsexual individuals have right to change their sex for treatment but that must be under trustworthy physicians and according to international standards.

Unfortunately, the legalization of transsexuality and recognition of sex reassignment surgery as a treatment for transsexuals has led to some controversial opinions and criticisms outside Iran not withstanding transsexualitty acceptance in transsexuality western and eastern countries.

In response to these debates, it is necessary to examine the historical development of transsexuality in Iran. The History of Sex Reassignment Surgery in Iran The controversial history of sex reassignment surgery in Iran is usually traced to the revolution of Islamic Republic of Iran, ample evidence indicate that sex change operation is not new in Iran and these surgeries have been performed long before that in Iran.

The first documented sex reassignment surgery performed in Studg by doctor Khalatbari in He changed an 18 years old young boy to a girl, by sex reassignment surgery; this surgery became a hotly debated issue Coggon, Hammond et al. Before transsexuality, the sex change operations ni been performed in hermaphrodites iran discover and reveal the transsexkality sex lf remove the weak sex singe to reinforce 19 An Iranian trained French og that has done several sex reassignment iraj operations in Iran.

The s saw the beginning of discussions on Transsexualism in Iran through some popular write-ups translated in Persian language as sex, love, marriage, sex change, homosexuality and gender misidentification. The conditions of genital alterion by surgery appeared irxn Iran in the early s and these surgeries increased in the s and s. The concepts of sex and gender, gender determination and gender disorder appeared in Iranian iran literature via medical and psychological books in the transsexualitg s Najmabadi Afsaneh, 37, By the s there were more discussions on sex change surgery.

Two hospitals in Tehran and Shiraz undertook sex reassignment surgeries according to a report by Kayhan on 11th October Further, 20 persons out transsexuality fifty study for sex transition also underwent sex reassignment surgery Najmabadi Afsaneh, The medical ethics of sex reassignment surgery was made subject of discussions by the professional organization of physicians known as the Medical Association of Iran and this organization pronounced that sex reassignment surgery is transsexuality acceptable in intersex individuals not more.

The political influence iran power of Imam Khomeini made the issue of sex reassignment statutorily accepted in Iran following his fatwa in in Arabic language and reissuing the fatwa on in Persian language legalizing sex reassignment surgery. Sex reassignment surgery has been officially and legally allowed for transsexuals after the revolution of in Iran. By establishment of Islamic republic of Iran in thethe conditions of transsexuality oc a new support transssexuality and legally.

Islamic literatures classified humankind into male or female, however, hermaphrodite individuals whose gender is difficult to determine is equally accepted. With the advancement of modern science, the true identity of the hermaphrodites will be easily determined with accuracy. Today, Iran has become prominent sgudy sex reassignment surgery in the world and it is known as global leader for sex change operation according to Gordian Coggon, Hammond et al.

It is one of few Islamic countries in the world that made sex change stuy and allowed transsexuals to change all identification documents including birth certificates Bahreini, After the revolution of Islamic Republic of Iran, transsexuality is recognized as a disorder treatable by medical surgery and sex reassignment surgery is considered as a human right like marriage, education, health and etc.

Today, Iran has access to a prominent position on acceptance transsexuality and permissible sex transsexuality surgery as it has the best medical and social services for transsexuals in worldwide. As many western media are report, over the past decades, Iran carried out more sex change operation than other countries except Thailand Robert Tait: Between topeople applied for sex reassignment surgery, only 70 of them was female that submitted for change to male and of were etudy Najmabadi Afsaneh, 3.

There were no formal statistics of transsexuals in Iran and indeed worldwide. As a common statistic there are approximately four to six persons in everyas transsexual. Approximately, 28, to 48, people are presumed to be transgender patients in Iran Kariminia Muhammad, shudy This indicates that the percentage from males to female is higher than that of females transsexuality male. Recently, medical studies estimate that there are millions intersex individuals with ambiguous biological factors in the United States Anne Fausto-Sterling, Due to its Islamic nature, Muslim scholars play transsexuality role in determining the manner the Iranian government stury.

The legality of transsexuality in Iran today is due to its approval by Tfanssexuality Khomeini after the Iranian Islamic revolution of Unlike most countries in the Islamic world, sex reassignment surgery is study in Iran and Iran also has become a home for European and Arab patients seeking to change their gender.

The intermediaries mentioned in this study are the sources of emulation denial of the need for asking questions , religious rites prayers and pilgrimage , and female organs breasts. Former studies may explain how and why for this process. In a qualitative study, the role of inner homophobia in the formation of belief in God independent of the religion and church was mentioned This is a finding, which Miller has also mentioned: the homosexuals take advantage of religious, spiritual, and cultural abilities to resist against the internalized homophobia Woods believes that the ones who are committed to the religion believe in a judgment-central God, whereas the spirituality offers loving aspects, forgiving, and non- judgmental The spiritual but not religious view is also criticized by other authors like James Martin, who considered the denial of connectedness to a religious institution as a type of rejection of the collective wisdom The relation between being religious and reaching a higher level of psychological-social performance was investigated in a qualitative study In this study, the two folded effect of religion in sexual minorities were examined; religion was considered as a developmental asset on the one hand and as a source of risk on the other.

This study as a testimony to this view cites various groups of studies in this category:. The sense of guilt, which was clearly observed in a sexual desire towards a person of the same sex, was diminished by acquiring the opposite gender identity and finding a proper justification. Diminishing religion to spirituality is similar to considering religion only in the personal level not in the scale of a social structure concordant with the secular view to the religion which allows the belief to God only in the personal life.

It seems that one of the justifications for the expansion of this viewpoint is the technocratic view on the human beings. The delineation of these processes from the social and cultural perspectives, in parallel with anthropological and religious aspects, can pave the way to a deeper understanding of view of the present-day human to their relation with the creator and their origin and resurrection, assisting them to achieve spiritual growth and mental health.

Religious experiences of Iranian transgenders: A qualitative study. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Med J Islam Repub Iran. Find articles by Maryam Eftekhar. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Aug 20; Accepted Feb This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 3. Introduction Transsexuals face fundamental challenges 1.

Methods This was a qualitative content analysis study. Participants and Procedure In this study, a group of transsexuals was considered who had submitted their request for evaluation and obtained SRS permission of Tehran Psychiatric Institute and the forensics; they also passed the required psychotherapy period, experiments and medical commission and succeeded in receiving the permission.

Data Collection As the rehabilitation Unit of Tehran Psychiatric Institute was continuously in contact with these patients, we asked them to contact the patients and ask them to participate in this study to express their experiences and concerns and problems. Open in a separate window. Table 2 Question List Used in Interviews. What problems did you have with religious matters after sex change with respect to religious practice?

How did you resolve your problems? Which doubts or senses of guilt did you feel concerning sexual relations? How did you feel when you entered religious institutions such as mosques? What do you think of God? How do you see God? Table 3 Extracted Categories.

She came so your works sped up. Faezeh was the reason my work was done earlier. It like he has been my friend who is seven, or eight, or five, or six or twenty five year-old.

I got far closer to God. I feel him more, love him more.. Data Analysis In this study, in-depth interviews were conducted to attain the experiences of the participants. Conclusion Diminishing religion to spirituality is similar to considering religion only in the personal level not in the scale of a social structure concordant with the secular view to the religion which allows the belief to God only in the personal life.

References 1. Report of the American Psychiatric Association task force on treatment of gender identity disorder. Archives of Sexual Behavior. The epidemiology of transsexualism in Iran. Najmabadi A. Transing and transpassing across sex-gender walls in Iran. Krippendorff K. Reliability in content analysis.

Human Communication Research. Brannen J. Research note the study of sensitive subjects. The Sociological Review. G Guba Criteria for assessing the trustworthiness of naturalistic inquiries. Educational Communication and Technology Journal Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qualitative health research. Religious climate and health risk behaviors in sexual minority youths: A population-based study.

American journal of public health. AbuKhalil Aa. Gender boundaries and sexual categories in the Arab world. Gender Issues. Journal of religion and health. Family attitudes toward transgendered people in Turkey: Experience from a secular Islamic country. The International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine. Yip AK. Seegers DL. Spirituality, religion, and health: An emerging research field. American psychologist. The psychology of religion. Annual review of psychology.

Shapiro RR. Religion and spirituality: Unfuzzying the fuzzy. Journal for the scientific study of religion. Journal of adolescence. Support Center Support Center. External link. Please review our privacy policy. Sex change surgery is allowed through Islamic law, rather than substantive law, in response to the existing social facts and norms, on the one hand, and structural cooperation with medical system, on the other.

Using semi structured interviews, intersectional content analysis, and feminist methodologies, the findings indicate that transsexual bodies have gained meaning through religious and medical discourses within a framework of power relations, and that Iranian transsexual persons have reconstructed and redefined gender and gender relations in a way that informs their understanding of gender and sexuality beyond the existing Islamic legal and social norms.

Moreover, intersectional analysis of the interviews demonstrates how the legal misrecognition of transsexuality creates space for a discourse which in itself leads to the misrecognition of other gendered identities, such as homosexuals and transwomen.

The Euro-American media 1 has widely represented the Iranian authorities as legalizing sex- change surgery while at the same time imposing punishments on gay people. Accordingly, two main arguments can be identified around how sex change surgery is discussed outside Iran. One view celebrates the fact that the government of Iran forces people, especially homosexuals, to fit into heterosexual categories of male or female cf.

Jafari ; Bahreini , Najmabadi Initially, this article took shape against the backdrop of these assumptions regarding sex change surgery in Iran and the misrepresentation of Iranian transsexual persons not only in Iranian law and society, but also outside the country. Drawing on the information gathered from fieldwork conducted in Iran Tehran between and , this paper explores how sex change surgery and transsexuality are discussed in the context of Iran. The overall aim of this article is to investigate how the issue of transsexuality is represented at an international level; how it is approached by Iranian law and society; and how transsexual people in Iran understand their gender.

Furthermore, institutionalized misrecognition, as Fraser explains a , 24 takes shape in the form of law, governmental policies and professional practices that constitute some categories of people as inferior members of society.

I argue that the failure of Iranian substantive laws to recognize transsexuality and further the medicalization of transsexuality constitute a form of misrecognition, and that misrecognition has resulted in the status subordination of transsexual persons in society.

In the following sections, I first describe the historical background to sex change surgery in Iran. I then draw on the Iranian language and understanding of gender and sexuality before I move on to explain how sex change surgery is allowed under Islamic law and how it is treated in Iranian law.

Finally, I draw on trans activism in Iran with regards to identity politics. Transsexual phenomena became a subject of medical literature in the mid nineteenth century. Magnus Hirschfeld a German sexologist, and pioneer advocates of transgender people who coined the term transvestite and wrote a book about that in known for treatment of transgender Stryker , However transsexual was first used by David O.

Notwithstanding, transsexual persons may or may not change their bodily characteristics through hormonal and surgical means Enke , The term transsexual is relatively new and continues to be modified across time and space around the world. Therefore, its meaning is still being constructed and it varies depending on different historical and socio-cultural contexts. The concept of transgender is being used in international discourses. As Enke points out , 20 transgender can refer to a social movement, a social category or an identity.

Moreover, identities are generally specific to the community, class, race, nationality, and location of people. Therefore, gender-nonconforming people, in many parts of the world, who transcend their genders, may not identify with this concept. I have used the term trans in this paper, as it is the term that was used by the interviewees in Iran to refer to a transsexual person who chooses to undergo sex change surgery.

And if a woman feels she is masculine or if a person feels they have desires of opposite sex, and can change their sex, but are biologically man or woman, it is not obligatory for them to change and become the opposite sex.

Kariminia , There is no Islamic obstacle to sex change surgery, if it is approved by a reliable doctor. Maryam Khatoon was immediately given a Chador 6 to wear Najmabadi , , even though she had not undergone sex change surgery.

Ayatollah Khomeini allowed sex change surgery because he believed that there are no indications of its unlawfulness in Islamic sources, so he involved medics in the process. As a result, transsexuality in Iran is perceived as a psychological problem known as Gender Identity Disorder 7 GID , which describes the status of a person who is not content with their gender and abhors their physiological structure.

A transsexual person is also known as gender dysphoric, 8 which means someone who is discontented with their gender and does not abide by the gender roles assigned to them according to their biological sex Kalantari and Ebrahimi , Hence, non-surgical treatments such as hormone therapy and psychotherapy are not deemed to be entirely effective, with surgery being suggested to treat these patients ibid. This is when the intervention of the medical system and the pathologization of transsexuality as GID amounts to the misrecognition of transsexuality.

The consequence of this is inevitably the production of a medico-judicial procedure that allows transsexuals to be certified as eligible candidates for sex change surgery. The current 9 medical and judicial process for obtaining a certificate for sex change surgery, and subsequently the legal change of name and gender in Iran, involves 13 sessions of psychiatric treatment for self-identified transsexual applicants.

Transsexual persons who undergo the surgery may ask the family court for a legal change of name and gender. It should be noted that persons diagnosed with GID should also fulfill other requirements to be eligible for sex change surgery, which is different from being medically diagnosed.

What is more, based on the fatwa , those who have received the diagnosis and the certificate for sex change surgery can live as a trans person without undergoing the surgery as long as they do not fall into sinful acts 12 Kariminia , I employ feminist methodologies to show and understand the relation between the production of knowledge among a marginalized group of people and the dominant power that represents them.

I try to shed light on social and legal policies as well as the experiences of trans persons in Iran. I also agree with Diane Richardson , that the relationship between gender and sexuality needs to be analysed historically, considering the social and cultural specificities of different contexts, in order to give space to different understandings of gender and sexuality, and avoid Western essentialist accounts of these concepts. As Richardson , puts it, gender and sexuality are formed within intersectional discourses of class, race and ethnicity that are themselves already embedded in different places, cultures, religions and forms of governmentality.

The data I have used for this article are from fieldwork that I carried out in Tehran during two trips; the first took place between December and January and the second was in November In addition to interviews, other materials for analysis include: 1 legal documents; 2 official writings of Ayatollahs; and 3 media and press coverage.

Textual discourse analysis is used to analyse the primary and secondary data. Addressing jinsiyat , Hamid, 16 an FTM postoperative , explained:. I was a person who had some extra organs in my body that my soul rejected, and at the same time I was missing some other necessary parts.

With the surgery I made my jinsiyat compatible with my thoughts. Hamid and Taraneh used jinsiyat to refer to biological sex, as distinct from the non-biological meaning soul, thoughts, interests, mood, etc.

As Rosi Braidotti , puts it, cultural differences and linguistic diversity shape the practical and theoretical understanding of gender in different parts of the world. The interviews illustrate that gender, as a complex concept of self-consciousness and social identity, is embedded in the soul, thoughts and mind of a person—as opposed to the biological sex, or jinsiyat. Thus, trans persons change their sex the material body not their gender the immaterial body.

Like any other, Iranian society has faced various social and political changes since the Islamic Revolution, and these have created a generation that experiences sexuality and does gender differently from their predecessors. Many women at all social levels in Iran discuss social and legal inequalities and employ strategies to resist unequal policies. This includes, for example, not wearing a head-scarf in public, making their manteaux the public dress code for Iranian women shorter and tighter, or pushing to beat boys in school, and go to university Hoodfar and Sadeghi , The Iranian post-revolution generation, as Fatemeh Sadeghi holds , , does not necessarily follow the Islamic ideologies imposed by the government, especially with regards to sexuality.

Sadeghi argues , that sexuality in contemporary Iran is the construction of discursive practices and the experiences of the younger generation within power relations in different areas of life. Despite the enforcement of patriarchy and unequal gendered relations within the private family and public employment and education spheres, women, especially young women, continue to challenge the gendered policies and practices of the Iranian government Kian , Transsexuality is poorly discussed within Iranian feminist scholarship in Iran, which has largely focused on the rights of women and female sexuality, especially in the realm of law within the family and the public domain.

This has made their work less focused on nonconforming genders and gender relations in society. There is, however, a significant amount of literature on the issue of sex change surgery authored by Iranian jurists and medical doctors in Iran.

The existing literature on transsexuality published by Iranian scholars outside of Iran cf. Jafari ; Najmabadi , ; Shakerifar ; Javaheri ; Bahreini shows that the debate on transsexuality in Iran revolves around the issue of medical and psychiatric treatment of GID for assigning the individual to their desired gender. In representing transsexuality in Iran, Elhum Shakerifar , adheres to the medical discourse of transsexualism, maintaining that most transsexuals in Iran believe that their subjective experience of sexuality as existing in their minds is different from that of their bodily representations.

Therefore, the demand for surgery becomes the first symptom of transsexualism. This argument is employed to distinguish their status from that of homosexuals and transvestites, who can claim no medical grounds for treatment. Freshteh Javaheri , defines transsexuality in Iran as a culturally and historically specific transgender practice, or an identity that engages transgendered people with medical and judicial institutions in order to gain access to certain hormonal and surgical technologies for enacting and embodying the self.

Along with the existing literature, several recently produced documentaries 17 have depicted Iranian trans people, as being either, as Shakerifar , puts it, oppressed entities and mostly homosexuals being forced to undergo sex change surgery, or as the exotic objects of investigation for the media.

Islamic laws are not a set of divine rules preordained by God. After the death of the prophet Mohammad, private scholars attained authority due to their religious knowledge which enabled them to provide guidance to people on matters that had remained unresolved during his life time. Hence, the science of law fiqh emerged Mir-Hosseini , 4. According to Coulson , 76 the divine sources are the principles of Islamic jurisprudence or fiqh that should be taken into account by a mujtahid, who is a person exercising ijtihad.

Ijtihad is the process of independent reasoning by jurists, and literally means diligence in English. The source of emulation, who is a marja - e - taghlid provides legally binding opinions known as fatwa for their followers by using ijtihad and referring to divine sources. Mohammad Hashim Kamali , defines fatwa as a legal opinion of a qualified Islamic jurist in response to a Muslim question.

The sources of law in the Iranian legal system are comprised of both secular and Islamic components. The Iranian constitution stipulates in Principle that a judge must use Islamic sources and authentic fatwas to rule on the matters about which the Iranian law books are silent. Transsexuality has not been addressed in Islamic sources and there had been no fatwas issued on the matter of sex change and transsexuality before Ayatollah Khomeini.

Therefore, it is the work of jurists to create new opinions through fiqh and referring back to Islamic sources. Islamic law varies with reference to its deferential contexts and should be studied by addressing human practices not the divine will. As a result, what is known as Islamic law is produced and reproduced by members of different societies Dupret , This is discussed further below.

The legal opinions of Islamic jurists on the matter of sex change differ depending on their reasoning and understanding of Islamic sources. This means that different interpretations of Islamic sources can result in divergent legal opinions among jurists in response to a similar inquiry.

Judges in Tehran are much more open to sex changes, and people undergo the surgery without much difficulties. Therefore, people come here [Tehran] for transition. Half a century ago among Iranian jurists, the Islamic jurisprudential discourses on the issue of sex change surgery began by discussing matters relating to hermaphrodites dujinsi two sexes and psychological hermaphrodites or khunsa a term used in Islamic jurisprudence to refer to intersex individuals.

However, there has been a major shift in jurisprudential arguments over the past two decades on the state of transsexual people, which is now taken to describe a disparity between the body and the soul. Therefore, surgery is a way to bring the body into line with the soul, because one cannot change the soul Najmabadi , Should we say that is not lawful?

He clarifies , 22 that, according to the fiqhi Islamic jurisprudential rule of heliyat permissibility , everything is halal permissible unless it is forbidden in the Quran or Hadith.

Therefore, undergoing a sex change is a permissible act Bojnourdi , Proponents of sex changes also refer back to divine sources to support their arguments; however, their readings of divine sources and the application of Islamic jurisprudence differ from that of their opponents.

As a result, in some cities in Iran not only is sex change surgery forbidden, but also the judges do not allow the legal change of name and gender. Therefore, surgery is the way to treat their sickness Kariminia , For Kariminia, granting permission for a sex change depends on two conditions. Firstly, it should be an issue of absolute necessity zarurat for a Muslim and secondly, it must be real haghighi. However, if transsexual persons can live without committing sinful acts same sex acts or hamjins bazi , they do not have to undergo sex change surgery or make bodily changes.

Generally the situation of trans people in Iran is disastrous. The surgeries are very costly. Families abandon them.

They lose their jobs. They live in scarcity. Most of them have no roof over their heads. They are forced into sex work for little money. Especially transsexual women…. I never tell anybody that I am a trans or have changed my sex, because as soon as they find out you are a transsexual, they either get scared or want to rape you….

However, according to the interviews, this amendment has not yet been implemented in practice and they still receive a military exemption card marked with a psychological disorder. In the current political atmosphere, Ayatollah Khomeini is a red line [opposition to the system] himself. That is why his fatwa has not been tuned into a law…. The procedural regulations regarding the process of transition in Iran emerged from official inter-organizational inquiries within the judiciary.

We want parliament to pass a law that permits sex change surgery, a proper law. A circular is not a law. A circular can be changed by the head of the organization, it does not have the power of law.

We want parliament to make this a law of the land, so that it is binding everywhere. For Tahirkhani the recognition of transsexuality and sex change surgery by the law means that the state and society will know and accept that trans persons exist as citizens who enjoy equal rights. It is difficult to distinguish between sexual deviances and sexual behaviours.

I have had patients from the most religious and traditional parts of Qom [known as the most religious city in Iran]. I do a lot of thinking before I apply the knife. It is very hard even for them to recognize their identity.

Someone who comes to me and asks for the most difficult and painful surgery to dispose of her breasts and womb is definitely not a homosexual.

Their representations of themselves are different from the real selves. This is a similar argument to Hakeem , who maintains that transsexuality cannot be explained biologically, because the minds of individuals experience different conditions during their formative years—an idea that needs more psychotherapy. Hakeem , states that patients with conflict about their gender may call themselves transsexuals but deserve psychotherapy for treatment.

Surgery results in complete loss of sexual desires, especially in the cases of male-to-female transition. They are not able to satisfy their sexual partners after the surgery, which causes frustration, depression and, in many cases, suicide. Trans people whom I interviewed believed that it is very degrading to lower the value of humankind merely to sexual desires, so they understand their sexuality as involving not only sex, but also other social practices, forces and struggles that challenge unjust institutionalized discourses about them and their status.

Above all, Iranian transsexual persons reject the idea that they are suffering from a medical condition, but they do not challenge the view of medicalization, because it is considered the only way in which they can be seen and acknowledged by the law, family and society. Surgeons play an important role in discussing the option of sex change surgery with the families of trans people by using medical arguments rather than religious justifications. It is due to these medical views that many families permit their children to undergo sex change surgery.

The soul is the interests, thoughts and feelings I have. When your soul wants something that does not match with your body, you are in big trouble — I mean from choosing the colour of your socks to the style of your hair…. Therefore, the souls that we receive are from previous bodies. They get mixed up in the air when trying to capture the right bodies. The interviews show that, the moment a person self-identifies as a trans, they are no longer struggling with any type of inner conflict or confusion.

Those who self-identity as transsexual pre or post-operative have no sense of confusion, guilt or resistance around sexual relations. However, transition does not occur at the moment of realization or when undergoing the surgery. It might take years until the person feels secure. Najmabadi , maintains that different performances wearing make-up, cooking, doing the laundry, clothes, driving, doing heavy work create a sense of being either a man or a woman—not genitalia. Therefore, she perceives ibid.

It is important how I see myself. The problem is the contradiction between my physical self and the image I have in my mind of myself. I wanted to have congruence between my body and my mind. It was not an issue for me to have sex with women before the surgery, because in my mind I did not have a female body, but Iranian women do not usually have sex with female bodies.

What is more important for Mehran is the self-recognition of his body and gender, not the way others see him. He wants to be recognized as he sees himself. We are keeping away from going in that direction; it is not good for us…. As Fraser describes it a , 23 , the status model focuses on the recognition of the individual in full participation in social interactions rather than group identity.

The status model of recognition highlights a struggle to overcome status subordination and foster parity of participation. For Fraser, status recognition tackles the problem of gender injustice, which is rooted in cultural values. Furthermore, it deconstructs the traditional understanding of identity politics in such a way that it remedies gender misrecognition Fraser and Honneth , I think they [transwomen] are miserable and fake, I do not approve of them; they have destroyed our image in society.

They paint a bad image of us in society. Trans is growing in Iran like a tsunami, and most of them are these kids who wear tight shorts, cross-dress as women and go on the streets to make money. Whereas, transmen are good people, because they only want to have a family, find a job and settle down ….

Those who are not really trans misuse the law by pretending to be trans. I know people who have identified themselves as trans, got the certificates and have lived without surgery for eight years. They do not intend to get the surgery anyway…. Homosexuals change their toilets, not their sexes.

A lesbian can act as a boy but can never become a man capable of providing for the family, or take responsibilities. Creating distinctions between homosexuality and transsexuality is the result of structural homophobic law and a society that relegates homosexuality to pathology and relates transsexuality to a new model of masculinity at the individual level. However, the law neither legalizes sex change surgery, nor does it recognize transsexuality.

Therefore, it remains a taboo in society and among the families of trans people because it breaks the cultural rules of gender. The misrecognition of law has caused many transsexual persons to live their social lives hidden behind their identities, both prior to and after the surgery. As a result, covert surgery, without the knowledge of families, appears to be very common among transsexual persons in Iran.

In January , Fari, a year-old transsexual woman, was considering undergoing sex change surgery. Her father and brothers had threatened to kill her if she had the surgery. None of these extinguished the flame, which is how she referred metaphorically to her feeling of being a trans. In March , she underwent the surgery without the knowledge of her family, and stayed in a hotel to recover.

In November , her boss found out about the surgery and fired her. Her family abandoned her, her child was taken away from her and she had to move to another city. No one in my family knows that I have removed my womb and breasts apart from my mother, because she paid for the expenses. As soon as my brothers and father find out, I will be dead. They have already beaten me severely few times, when I came out as a trans.

If I come out as a trans and talk about my surgery, my family will have to bear the shame. Besides, it might cause problems for my other siblings, as they might lose their jobs and families, and even worse than that is that they might never be able to get married because of me.

That is why I have kept it a secret. My father says he has no problem with me having the surgery, but he is concerned that I am doing it without realizing that I will never be able to function as a man because of my future artificial penis. To be misrecognized is not simply to be thought ill of, looked down upon or devalued in others attitudes, beliefs or representations, it is rather to be denied the status of a full partner in social interaction, as a consequence of institutionalized patterns of cultural value that constitute one as comparatively unworthy of respect or esteem Fraser b , — This form of misrecognition pushes transsexual persons to the margins, destabilizes their status in society and hence leaves them vulnerable to violence and discrimination.

I might not be able to satisfy a woman sexually after the surgery, but I am sure I will have inner peace, which is the difference that matters for me. Sex change surgery is seemingly considered to be the one and only way for Iranian trans persons to claim their gender identities, in spite of the social exclusion. Upon the official granting of the permission from the judiciary to undergo sex change surgery, transsexual persons can pass as trans by carrying the certificate until they are ready to undergo the surgery.

As mentioned earlier, according to the fatwa , if there is no risk of conducting sinful acts same-sex sexual relations , the surgery is not obligatory immediately after being diagnosed as trans and granted the medical certificate for the surgery. There are many factors, including financial problems and emotional challenges with families that can delay the surgery for years. Therefore, those who take years between receiving the diagnosis and undergoing the surgery do not perceive their acts and relations as sinful, but healthy.

The paper demonstrates while transsexuality and trans persons in Iran are misrepresented internationally, their status is also misrecognized in Iran at the structural level legal and social , and at the individual level, among both trans and non-transsexual people.

This arises in part because the knowledge of Islamic jurists and Islamic laws, including Islamic sources, are limited on this subject. The medicalization of transsexuality in Iran has been relatively effective in helping to change the attitudes of their own families, from abhorrence to humanitarianism. Iranian transsexual persons reject the notion of GID Gender Identity Disorder and other medical representations, while at the same time believing that the involvement of medical professionals in the process of transition has helped to strengthen their status in society.

In the current climate of the Islamic Republic of Iran, medical doctors enjoy the privilege of being regarded or arguably misunderstood as contributing to society from a politically-neutral standpoint which lies beyond religious and ideological debates. With reference to Nancy Fraser I show that the status misrecognition of transsexual persons in Iran results in institutionalized subordination that in turn leads to inequality and violence.

However, transsexual persons in Iran struggle to overcome this misrecognition by redefining gender and reconstructing gender relations through their practices both prior and after undergoing sex change surgery. This challenges the idea of a gender binary distinction and the boundaries of gender in Iranian law and society. Thus, sex change surgery is not understood by Iranian transsexuals as a way to fit themselves into the category of male or female; neither is it perceived as the last resort to live as a full member of society.

Rather, it is understood as bringing the body closer to the soul. I have shown that the misrecognition of transsexuality at the structural level legal and social amounts to a status misrecognition of transsexual women and homosexuals at the individual level. Transsexual women are misrecognized by transmen as a fake gender resembling homosexuals. I hope that this article gives a real account of the socio-historically specific understanding of gender by the Iranians who reconstruct their bodies and disrupt gender relations in a patriarchal system yet again within Islamic framework.

Accessed 20 December Article punishes any homosexual acts other than penetration by lashes. Ayatollah Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini — was a clergyman educated in Islamic law and philosophy. He became a political opposition leader to the secular regime of the Pahlavi dynasty during the s, and later became the leader of the Islamic Revolution in He gained the highest religious position among the Iranian population.

He incorporated new ideas and turned the review into a book of jurisprudential fatwas. He finished the book and published it in Arabic in Najaf, Iraq, not later than Harry Benjamin was a German born American doctor and endocrinologist.

Benjamin was opposed to psychiatric treatments and defined transsexuality as a state of desiring to be the other sex Hausman , The first version was published in and the latest version the 7th was published in DSM has standardized the diagnosis and treatment of transsexual persons emphasizing the need to investigate the background of the patient from childhood, clinical diagnosis, psychotherapy, hormone therapy, and body modification and changing secondary sex characteristics such as breast formation, hip fat, body hair and voices Davy , Sinful acts here refers to same-sex relations that are criminalized by the law, which are the sexual conducts between two men with male bodies or between two women with female bodies.

For example, a pre-operative transman cannot have sex with a female body. It should be clarified that genital organs define the sex of person in Iran. I accessed the field and received permissions for interviews through the surgeons.

a study of transsexuality in iran

Methods: This was a qualitative content transsecuality study focusing on the various dimensions of the experiences of seven patients suffering from gender identity disorder in a female-to-male subgroup. This study presents a report concerning the religious aspects of their experience. Conclusion: Diminishing religion to transsexuality comprised the core experiences of these patients having intimate relations with such concepts as secularism, stigma, and technocracy. Transsexuals face fundamental challenges 1.

Religion is one of the important aspects of this experience. Transsexuality has a different trend in Iran where different social factors are at work 2. Religious experiences engage different issues in a country like Iran, with a religious context. Issues including meaning of sex appeal to the biologically same sex, type of iran and veil, form of worshipping rites, location separation of men and women along with a higher valuation for men im important in this context.

The formal religious interpretations in Iran have a supportive role, comparing the same sex intercourse. Se x reassignment surgery was legalized in Iran in following the fatwa of Imam Khomeini 3. However, no qualitative study has been conducted on study religious experiences of these patients in Iran. The aim of this study was to attempt to understand the deep and sophisticated, culturally differentiated aspects of this phenomenon in this society.

This was a qualitative content analysis study. This method was selected due to the lack of knowledge on the subject of transgender as the specific research topic of the religious experience after the surgery in Iran. This method provides an opportunity for the participants to freely speak of their unique experiences and express study hidden aspects of their thoughts and feelings 4. In this study, a group of transsexuals was considered who had submitted their request for evaluation and obtained SRS permission of Tehran Psychiatric Institute and the forensics; they also passed the required psychotherapy period, experiments and medical commission and succeeded in receiving the permission.

They had already passed the stages of cross-sex clothing, transsexualjty therapy and had already started reassignment surgery, but they were in different stages. No specific period was set between the surgery stdy the interview.

However, it was attempted to select the individuals who were more heterogeneous from this respect and other significant aspects 5. As the rehabilitation Unit of Tehran Psychiatric Institute was continuously in contact with these patients, we asked transsexuality to contact the patients and ask them to participate in this study to express their experiences and concerns and problems.

Those individuals, who were primarily called, were expected to be most cooperative. As the social worker of the institute stated, these individuals were mostly from the female-to-male groups; the study was restricted to this group. The first individual who was invited for an interview was the iran who was in contact with most of the patients and had continuously irxn and supported them and announced his cooperation with this study in attracting the cooperation of the others.

Nevertheless, selection was done according to the patients register list. Finally, eight individuals participated in the interviews. One of the interviews was incomplete as the interviewee did not cooperate, and no other interview was arranged in the study because we found that the patient had ih disease. As a result, this study was a summary irab the information of seven individuals.

The table 1 demonstrates the demographic characteristics of the study. In this study, in-depth interviews were conducted to attain the experiences of the participants.

Based on the consensus of the interviewers, a list of questions was prepared before the interview. These questions were arranged under the topics of gender identity, tranwsexuality relations, marriage, having a child, and sutdy experience. This study reports the findings concerning the last topic: Religious experience. The interviews included individualized questions, which were asked uniquely in each interview to reach a concept closer to what the interviewee was trying to express.

To attain trustworthiness, Guba's criteria were employed including credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability 6. The study lasted until the context was clear and the categories and sub-categories were identified.

Two advisors evaluated the extracted codes separately and discussed the analysis and initial conceptualization. Important remarks were recorded in the Memo section in the software and in a paper. The initial concepts and categories were collected and concluded after four interviews. A discussion was held about the concepts and categories. Considering the temporariness and tentativeness of the concepts, three other interviews were conducted, codified, and discussed using the same method.

Finally, data were saturated based on the group opinion. The interviews were terminated, and consensus was reached on the final summary of the extracted concepts.

The first category, sense of guilt, included the following subcategories: Sense of guilt from the sexual relation, sense of guilt from the sex change transsexuality, sense of guilt from masturbation.

The last category included the following subcategories: Rejection by religious authorities, rejection of the desired gender identity by the family due to piety. Before the surgery, commitment to religion was based on transsexualuty perceived identity not the biological identity; and after sex reassignment, which could be considered a trauma, they found a profounder and closer belief in Igan.

Stigma imposed by the religious community on the one hand and the need for a superior power to protect them against the gap in their study on the other hand helped the participants maintain a spiritual faith rather than commitment to religion. Thus, they may be categorized in the group of sexual minorities homosexuals, bisexuals, and in total LGBTs or queers and may inquire the religious experiences of these people. Nevertheless, due to the burden of stigma and interpersonal social conflicts, it can be compared to such diseases as Study.

The testimonies of the application of religion as a protector for the health in general and mental health in particular have been shown in different transsexualiyy. Nonetheless, those studies reflect that religion functions in a more complicated and paradoxical manner among the sexual minorities such as homosexuals and transsexuals.

Several studies such as that of Hatzenbuehler revealed that religious beliefs enhanced healthy behaviors and decreased risky ones in these groups even more than the effect it transsexuality in the group of heterosexuals. Nonetheless, other studies revealed that sexual minorities the study was mainly on homosexualsxtudy were raised in religious families had a more severe sense of guilt and probability of suicide.

This fact was more evident in younger ages and especially in adolescents 8. Rejection by religious communities study experienced by our participants especially those who had more intimate relations with the institutions associated with religion. So far, this experience has been studied in the sexual minorities in Christian societies. A substantial number of studies have been conducted on the view of Islamic religious institutions on the issue of transsexualism and sex reassignment surgery.

The studies conducted by religious sociologists revealed that some Islamic cults, the Islamic society in general, are facing homosexuality among men with more overlooking attitude than heterosexuality no article was found on homosexuality, which had a closer association with the topic at hand among women. In a study by Assad Abukhalil, it was found that the fact of religious authorities tackling homosexuality through Islamic penal codes and aggression toward pious people arises from the Christian tradition, not the Islamic one 9.

Still, the official Islamic authorities, at least in some countries such as Iran, have study a supportive position on gender identity transsdxuality and surgical operation.

The fatwa religious order of Imam Khomeini in which he permitted surgery for sex reassignment and the associated medical measures was a testimony to transsexaulity contention. In a qualitative study conducted in Turkey as a secular country and a country with a Muslim society and traditional family structure concerning gender identity disorder, stigma, transsecuality, and isolation from the family and friends were reported. This condition is commingled with the social values of this secular society.

In another study, the negative feelings from the families of male-to-female subgroups were higher compared to the families of the subgroup, which was ascribed to the higher social valuation of boys with respect to the girls in the society Aa in the field of social sciences demonstrate that sexual minorities show various reactions and choose different strategies against rejection and stigmata by the religious communities.

Andrew K. Yip, an author who has conducted a specialized research into the spiritual and religious experiences of the sexual minorities, reports the strategies as iran 12 :. Distancing from religious communities but still keeping a personalized religious faith, trying to minimize stigmatization. Remaining in religious communities of the people, despite the sense of stigmatization, with the hope of reaching positive change from inside.

In our study, it was observed that the experience of maintaining spirituality with the cost of fading away from the practical commitment to religion was prioritized. In summary, more spirituality transsexuality less religion, which has transsexuality closer relation with the fourth strategy, was observed.

It seems that the perceived stigma is so transsexuality that they need to rely on iran source of universal power to reject the oc commitment. Sex reassignment surgery is perceived as a process, which in sum leads to the elimination of intermediary and having a closer and more sincere and even a friendly relation with God.

The intermediaries mentioned in this study are the sources of emulation denial of the q for asking questionsreligious rites prayers and pilgrimageand female organs breasts. Former studies may explain how and why for this iran. In a qualitative study, the role of inner homophobia in the formation of belief in God independent of the religion and church was mentioned This is a finding, which Miller has also mentioned: the homosexuals take advantage of religious, spiritual, and cultural abilities to resist against the internalized homophobia Woods believes that the ones who are committed to the religion believe in a judgment-central God, whereas the spirituality offers loving aspects, forgiving, and non- judgmental The spiritual but not religious view is also criticized by other authors like James Martin, who considered the denial of connectedness to a religious institution as a type of rejection of the iran wisdom iran The relation between being religious and reaching a higher level of psychological-social performance was investigated in a qualitative study In this study, the two folded effect of religion in sexual minorities were examined; religion was considered as a developmental asset on the one hand and as study source of risk on the other.

This study as a testimony to this view cites various groups of studies in this category:. The transsexualtiy of guilt, which was clearly observed in a sexual desire towards a person of the same sex, was diminished by acquiring the opposite gender identity and finding transsexuality proper justification.

Diminishing religion to spirituality is similar to considering religion only in the personal level not in the scale studg a social structure concordant with the secular view to the religion which allows the belief to God only in the personal life. It seems that one of the justifications for the expansion of this viewpoint is the technocratic view on the human beings.

The delineation of these processes from the social and cultural perspectives, in parallel with anthropological and religious aspects, can pave the way to a deeper understanding of view of the present-day human to their relation with the creator and their origin and resurrection, assisting them to achieve spiritual growth and mental health. Religious experiences of Iranian transgenders: A qualitative study. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Med J Islam Repub Iran. Find articles by Maryam Eftekhar.

Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Aug 20; Accepted Feb This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 3. Introduction Transsexuals face fundamental challenges 1. Methods This was a qualitative content analysis study.

Participants and Procedure In this study, a group of transsexuals was considered who had submitted their request for evaluation and obtained SRS permission of Tehran Psychiatric Institute and the forensics; they also passed the required psychotherapy period, experiments and medical commission and succeeded in receiving the permission.

Data Collection As the rehabilitation Unit of Tehran Psychiatric Institute was continuously in contact with these patients, we asked them to contact the patients and ask them to participate in this study to express their experiences and concerns and problems.

Open in a separate window. Table 2 Question List Used in Iran. What problems did you have with religious matters after sex change with respect to religious practice?

Ukraine, Russia, Belarus girls, Kazakhstan ladies, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania women and Moldova girls

Planning your first date.
Truth and myths about Russian girls.
How to create a great profile.

Links

Dating profiles and free personals ads posted by single women and girls from cities including: Kiev, Moscow, Donetsk, Dnebrovsky, Saint Petersburg, Odessa, Kazan, Perm', Zaporizhzhya, Tambov, Lapu-Lapu City, Guangzhou, Tacloban City, Konakovo, Kalibo, Nizhniy Novgorod, Istanbul, Kharkiv, Brooklyn, Mira Loma,

Article (PDF Available) in Feminist Legal Studies 24(3) · October with Reads and that Iranian transsexual persons have reconstructed and redefined​. After that, I elucidate on the medicalization of transsexuality and the . Through the study of lived reality in Iran I try to challenge the idea that.

  • Вы ищете знакомства с иностранцами?
  • Хотите выйти замуж за рубеж?
  • Наш международный сайт знакомств абсолютно бесплатно поможет вам!
a study of transsexuality in iran

Знакомства с иностранцами.

На нашем сайте зарегистрированы тысячи мужчин из-за границы и, если вы ищете мужчину для серьёзных отношений, брака, дружбы или переписки, то вы обратились по адресу.

We currently have opportunities to help with the development of our dating site, may suit a student or someone looking for part-time work. View more information here.



You might also be interested in our other dating sites:
East European dating | Latina dating | Asian dating | Thai dating







Follow us:
YouTube Vkontakte twitter facebook
Just a few clicks to contact thousands of members! It's free!!!
a study of transsexuality in iran

We use cookies to ensure you get the best experience. Find out more.