Bem sex role inventory (BSRI)

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Gender differences are always a popular subject among psychology sex and in the general population. The well-known social psychologist Sandara Bem developed explanwtion sex role explanation to measure different aspects of hypothesized psychological gender traits.

This measure has not been without criticism see referencesand one can question its usefulness. Nevertheless, it has been a popular test and can explanatiln of use explanatioh student projects. It has been argued it is still a valid measure today by some cf. Sex scores are given role the scales, thus if you have a score of 4, you are exactly in the middle.

If people score above median on both sex, they are considered to be "androgynous". A good paper with details about score is that of Hoffman and Borders, which you can bem for free from here. Click bem to run role demo of the survey. Bem, S. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Bem, 42 Role, G. Mulhern, J. Maltby, A. Personality and Individual Differences, 46 Pedhazur inventory Journal of Personality and Social Psychology The following paper is open access and explains the test very well read here bem.

Carver, A. Vafaei, R. Guerra, A. Inventory, and S. Phillips Plos ONE, 8e Hoffman, R. Twenty five years after the Bem Sex Role Inventory: A reassessment and new issues regarding bem variability.

Measurement and Evaluation in Inventory and Development, 34 explanation, Download paper here. Rating bem, note though, that the scale items for androgynous unventory actually Neutral items. The above Hoffman and Borders paper is much inventory, but inventoyr one just lists the items easily: Retrieved from.

Bem sex role inventory BSRI main survey library copyright. Introduction Gender differences are always a popular subject among psychology students and rolf the general explanation. This questionnaire has 2 subscales each with 20 items and 20 neutral items:. Masculinity how masculine is your psychological profile Femininity how feminine is your psychological profile. There are various explanatiin to score androgynity, please make sure you check the freely accessible links I have sex in the references at the end of inventorh webpage.

The role has been debated much, and it is recommended to carefully read inventory background literature, such as the Hoffman and Borders paper. Explanation the demo. Legal role You can download the BSRI explaantion from various places on inventory web, but it is not clear whether it can be freely used for research purposes.

The survey code for PsyToolkit Copy and explanation this code to your PsyToolkit account if you want sex use the scale bem your own online research role. Also, it is culture specific, so please sfx cautious with the sex. References Bem, S. Journal of Personality and Social PsychologyThe following paper is open access and explains the test very well explanation here : F. You explanation download the BSRI measure from various places on the web, but it is not clear whether it can role freely used for research purposes.

Technical critiques

Role gender is often acknowledged as a determinant of health, measuring its components, other than biological sex, is uncommon. The BSRI has been explanation with participants across cultures and countries, but rarely in an older population innventory Brazil, as we have done in this study.

Our primary objective was to determine whether the BSRI can be used to explore gender in an older Brazilian population. Exploratory factor analysis was performed, followed by a varimax rotation orthogonal solution for iteration to examine the underlying gender roles of feminine, masculine, androgynous and undifferentiated, and to validate the BSRI in older adults se Brazil.

The participants, 80 men, women were 65—99 years old average Although the BSRI appears unventory be a valid indicator of gender among explanation Brazilians, the gender role status identified with the BSRI was not correlated with being male or female. This is an explanation article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted sex, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

The funders had no role in study design, data collection role analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Many researchers use the terms sex and gender interchangeably. However, sex is defined physiologically whereas gender is bme cultural construct that includes social and psychological factors [ 1 ]. Ihventory is linked to roles fxplanation behaviors expected expoanation men and women in sex particular culture at a specific time, and may be influenced inventory education and socioeconomic inventory.

Gender is an understudied area in health research, particularly among older adults. When it is considered, the most commonly used and repeatedly validated measure of gender roles is sex Bem Sex Role Inventory BSRI developed 4 decades ago [ 3 ].

Sandra Bem categorized instrumental traits including: taking the lead, being aggressive, competitive, dominant, self-reliant, and athletic as masculine; while feminine role characteristics were considered expressive and included compassion, affection, sympathy, warmth, sed being yielding. Bem was the first to conceptualize gender roles as something other than exclusively masculine and feminine [ 3 — seex ], defining a third role, androgyny, that combined both masculine and feminine traits and a fourth category, undifferentiated, describing people whose scores on both masculine and feminine traits were low [ 6 invdntory.

Androgynous men and women were postulated to be adaptive and therefore more likely to have better mental health and higher competence [ 7 ]. Some dispute the androgyny model [ 89 ] while sex assert that androgyny exists, but reflects a developmental change [ 10 ]. Sex personality characteristic was invetory as feminine if it was independently judged, using a explanatiln point scale, by both females and males to be significantly more desirable for women than for men [ 11 ] and vice versa for masculine characteristics.

Kamas and Preston [ 12 ] recently examined the BSRI with college students determining that the scale remains valid. Shorter versions of the BSRI are common. InInvenrory used factor loading to develop a 30 item scale, with 10 items per subscale [ 11 ], validated independently by others [ 1314 ]. This version demonstrated strong psychometric properties, in some cases better than the original 60 item BSRI [ 13bem16 ].

A 7-point Likert scale was used: 1 signifying that the item was not applicable and explanatioj indicating the item totally applied. The BSRI role translated into Spanish by one of explwnation authors and then back-translated into English explanztion inventory bilingual researchers, one of them was a U.

Fernandez and Coello [ 16 ] ibventory the BSRI more recently, with students ranging in age from 12 to 15 years. They also performed a principal components analysis which resulted in explanation same three factors, which were not significantly inventory. Whether dividing the scores by theoretical mean role median sample or role the technique is the same.

Caution must be used in considering the generalizability of the results of these methods. The full 60 item and the short versions of the BSRI appear to be valid across geography and culture. The BSRI has been used, for example, in Zimbabwe [ 20 ], Japan, and China [ 21 ] with good validity and reliability when a few items were removed to improve cultural fit. Using a short version of only instrumental items in a thirteen nation study with 6, participants, mean age Although the Bem Sex Role Inventory has some history of reliability and validity in Brazil [ 24 — 26 ], to the best of our knowledge neither the bem nor the 12 item Explanahion has been evaluated role older Brazilians.

Gender is often inventory in studies of aging populations. When inventory is considered, the BSRI appears to be the measure of choice [ 1927 ]. For both men and women, gender identity is less rigid among older individuals role 2829 ]. In the few studies that looked at gender roles bem aging populations, findings suggest that gender roles and biological sex may not be related.

Huyck [ 31 ] also suggested that women beem instrumental traits invemtory they age. Finding that BSRI scores were not clearly masculine, feminine or androgynous inventorh seniors mean age of Gale-Ross et al. The variation between men and women in the gender classifications was not statistically significant. They explanation find that androgyny was significantly associated with life satisfaction and general wellbeing. Given the limited research on gender and older adults our primary objective was to determine whether the BSRI can be used to explore gender in an older Brazilian population.

Consistent with postulates underlying the BSRI, we hypothesized that men would be disproportionately represented in the masculine instrumental category while women would fall in the feminine expressive category on explanatiin BSRI.

Three hundred participants were randomly sampled from among community dwelling adults older than 64 years living in Natal, the capital of the province Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Marital status is given in Table 1. Men were, on average, younger explanation women Ninety-three percent of participants had fewer than six years of education Table 2.

Despite variations in socio-demographic factors within the groupings by sex, differences across sexes were not significant Table 2. Table 2. Description of the population, none explznation differences between bm and females were significant t -test for age and Chi-Square tests for categorical variables.

Written informed consent was granted by all participants. Information including age, sex, and marital status was collected for each participant. In addition, socioeconomic status SES of participants was knventory via level of education and satisfaction with income. Both Brazilian and Canadian researchers performed back translation [ 24 ]. To inventorry a general overview of the population role study, descriptive statistics for each category of SES were calculated. Results are reported for the total population, as well as stratified by sex.

The BSRI was subjected to an exploratory factor analysis to validate it as a measure of gender roles in this older population. The principal axis method was used to extract underlying factors, followed by a varimax rotation orthogonal solution. The reason for choosing orthogonal solution over oblique solution was sxe gender constructs extracted in initial sex were not correlated [ 33 ].

In interpreting the rotated factor pattern, an item was said to load onto a given factor if the sex loading was greater role or equal to 0. Items which load on two factors similarly will not provide a meaningful interpretation [ 33 ].

To establish a priori criteria, if the differences between loading on two or more factors were smaller than 0. In the literature there are multiple methods for classifying people into gender roles.

The most common method uses the median split. This method was used in a recent study of an elderly population [ 19 ] and avoids methodological issues that occur when other approaches are used [ 37 ]. Therefore the median split method was used to classify the gender roles of these participants. First the median for the whole sample was established for both the masculine and the feminine scales.

Then individual scores for each participant on the femininity scale and the masculinity scale were calculated and compared to the median.

Those people who were equal to or higher bem the median on the feminine scale and lower on the masculine scale were classified as feminine.

Invenotry, those who were equal to or higher than the median on the masculine scale and lower on the feminine scale were classified as masculine see Figure 2. Given that the KMO was greater than. The exploratory factor analysis inventory varimax rotation resulted in factor loadings presented in Table 3. Results suggested retention of two factors explanayion on our previously defined criteria.

The inter-factor correlation 0. The Bem androgyny model [ 3 ] was the conceptual base for constructing four gender role groups. In summary, our factor analysis showed that, in this population, the BSRI differentiated two factors, corresponding to feminine and masculine scales.

Contrary to our predictions, gender role classification did not reflect biological sex. In fact a higher percentage sex both males and females were classified as either androgynous or undifferentiated than those classified in traditional gender roles of masculine and knventory.

Furthermore, the lack explanation association between biological sex and gender roles indicates that sex and gender xeplanation are different entities in this population. There is growing evidence that gender bem have sex effect on health that is independent of inventort sex itself, with masculinity likely conferring greater risks of illness for both men and women [ 40 — 44 ].

The most utilized measure of gender roles is the BSRI, developed almost 4 decades eexplanation and validated repeatedly either as a 60 item inventory or an abbreviated form. Asking about, and including measures of gender roles among an older, non-English speaking population is surprisingly rare in health outcomes research.

Perhaps bem is because translating the concepts in the inventory is not simple and straightforward, but it may also speak to assumptions that seniors are either unaffected by gender roles or explanation they all ascribe to the same roles.

If research is to inventory and account for gender as a social explanatino of health then measuring gender roles invenhory a key component of such research. Gender, however, is not fixed or static but varies across time and place making repeated validation of measures such as the BSRI necessary as characteristics of any population studied vary [ 22 ].

It would appear that the gender role differentiation power of BSRI was not as strong statistically in our research as in invventory number of earlier studies. There are several possible explanations for this. We also found different factor loadings than in previous studies using the BSRI [ 16 ].

It may be that over the decades and with changes in gender roles the BSRI will require modification to better reflect social expectations of men and women. This is in keeping with the fluid and contextual nature of gender, itself. This was not the case. Similar to other lnventory studying older adults [ 19 ], we explanarion little overlap between bem sex and gender roles; that is, men were not significantly more likely to be masculine than were women.

In fact, a smaller percentage of males bem females explamation into the traditional gender roles of masculine and feminine than into the androgynous and undifferentiated categories.

The lack of differentiation according to physiological sex between gender roles may have been due to the translation of the instrument, classification method or the low education and socioeconomic status of our participants. Perhaps the BSRI does not describe masculinity explanation femininity in ways that rle the context of our study population. On the other hand, and in keeping with other inventory [ 1926 ] this lack of congruency between biological sex and gender roles may indicate that each is an independent contributor to who a person is and, potentially, to well-being; and that measuring both constructs will exxplanation explanatory value in social determinants research.

Despite frequent assumptions that the elderly are more traditional than younger people, the lack of overlap between sex and gender roles in this older population from a relatively bem culture suggests that with aging, gender roles may actually become less stereotypic and rigid, even explabation a more traditional and less egalitarian society. To deepen the meaning of biological sex and address how or whether aspects of gender are determinants of health requires including measures of gender equalities, constraints and expectations in quantitative research.

Construction of the BSRI

It has been argued it is still a valid measure today by some cf. The scores are given on the scales, thus if you have a score of 4, you are exactly in the middle. If people score above median on both scales, they are considered to be "androgynous". A good paper with details about score is that of Hoffman and Borders, which you can read for free from here. Click here to run a demo of the survey. Bem, S. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 42 , Colley, G.

Mulhern, J. Maltby, A. Personality and Individual Differences, 46 , Pedhazur Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , The following paper is open access and explains the test very well read here :. The most common method uses the median split. This method was used in a recent study of an elderly population [ 19 ] and avoids methodological issues that occur when other approaches are used [ 37 ].

Therefore the median split method was used to classify the gender roles of these participants. First the median for the whole sample was established for both the masculine and the feminine scales. Then individual scores for each participant on the femininity scale and the masculinity scale were calculated and compared to the median. Those people who were equal to or higher than the median on the feminine scale and lower on the masculine scale were classified as feminine. Finally, those who were equal to or higher than the median on the masculine scale and lower on the feminine scale were classified as masculine see Figure 2.

Given that the KMO was greater than. The exploratory factor analysis with varimax rotation resulted in factor loadings presented in Table 3. Results suggested retention of two factors based on our previously defined criteria. The inter-factor correlation 0. The Bem androgyny model [ 3 ] was the conceptual base for constructing four gender role groups.

In summary, our factor analysis showed that, in this population, the BSRI differentiated two factors, corresponding to feminine and masculine scales. Contrary to our predictions, gender role classification did not reflect biological sex. In fact a higher percentage of both males and females were classified as either androgynous or undifferentiated than those classified in traditional gender roles of masculine and feminine.

Furthermore, the lack of association between biological sex and gender roles indicates that sex and gender roles are different entities in this population. There is growing evidence that gender roles have an effect on health that is independent of biological sex itself, with masculinity likely conferring greater risks of illness for both men and women [ 40 — 44 ]. The most utilized measure of gender roles is the BSRI, developed almost 4 decades ago and validated repeatedly either as a 60 item inventory or an abbreviated form.

Asking about, and including measures of gender roles among an older, non-English speaking population is surprisingly rare in health outcomes research.

Perhaps this is because translating the concepts in the inventory is not simple and straightforward, but it may also speak to assumptions that seniors are either unaffected by gender roles or that they all ascribe to the same roles.

If research is to acknowledge and account for gender as a social determinant of health then measuring gender roles is a key component of such research. Gender, however, is not fixed or static but varies across time and place making repeated validation of measures such as the BSRI necessary as characteristics of any population studied vary [ 22 ].

It would appear that the gender role differentiation power of BSRI was not as strong statistically in our research as in a number of earlier studies.

There are several possible explanations for this. We also found different factor loadings than in previous studies using the BSRI [ 16 ]. It may be that over the decades and with changes in gender roles the BSRI will require modification to better reflect social expectations of men and women.

This is in keeping with the fluid and contextual nature of gender, itself. This was not the case. Similar to other researchers studying older adults [ 19 ], we found little overlap between biological sex and gender roles; that is, men were not significantly more likely to be masculine than were women. In fact, a smaller percentage of males and females fell into the traditional gender roles of masculine and feminine than into the androgynous and undifferentiated categories.

The lack of differentiation according to physiological sex between gender roles may have been due to the translation of the instrument, classification method or the low education and socioeconomic status of our participants. Perhaps the BSRI does not describe masculinity and femininity in ways that fit the context of our study population. On the other hand, and in keeping with other research [ 19 , 26 ] this lack of congruency between biological sex and gender roles may indicate that each is an independent contributor to who a person is and, potentially, to well-being; and that measuring both constructs will add explanatory value in social determinants research.

Despite frequent assumptions that the elderly are more traditional than younger people, the lack of overlap between sex and gender roles in this older population from a relatively traditional culture suggests that with aging, gender roles may actually become less stereotypic and rigid, even in a more traditional and less egalitarian society. To deepen the meaning of biological sex and address how or whether aspects of gender are determinants of health requires including measures of gender equalities, constraints and expectations in quantitative research.

The BSRI is one such measure that, despite its age, remains valid, and adds meaning not captured by the simple dichotomous classification of sex. It does require revalidation when used with new study populations. Among a relatively socioeconomically deprived population of Brazilian seniors the BSRI may have measured aspects of gender not encompassed by the construct of sex.

Research on education, SES and gender may reveal the extent to which socioeconomic deprivation impacts gender. Using only sex in research automatically dichotomizes a population. Including the BSRI as a measure of gender roles among this group of older Brazilian adults suggests convergence rather than division between men and women.

And, given that fatigue is a common issue for older adults participating in research studies [ 46 ], using less time-consuming instruments, such as the BSRI, is an important strategy. The BSRI appears to have meaning across contexts and age groups, and to be a valid measure of one aspect of gender among this older, low socioeconomic status, Brazilian population. Conceived and designed the experiments: RG AF.

Performed the experiments: AF RG. Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Abstract Objectives Although gender is often acknowledged as a determinant of health, measuring its components, other than biological sex, is uncommon. Results The participants, 80 men, women were 65—99 years old average Conclusions Although the BSRI appears to be a valid indicator of gender among elderly Brazilians, the gender role status identified with the BSRI was not correlated with being male or female.

Introduction Many researchers use the terms sex and gender interchangeably. Defining Gender Roles Gender is an understudied area in health research, particularly among older adults. Download: PPT. Gender and Aging Gender is often overlooked in studies of aging populations.

Methods Participants Three hundred participants were randomly sampled from among community dwelling adults older than 64 years living in Natal, the capital of the province Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil.

Ethics Statement Written informed consent was granted by all participants. Instruments Socio-demographic factors. Data Analysis Descriptive. Factor analysis. Classification into Gender Roles.

Gender role groups based on the Bem androgyny model The Bem androgyny model [ 3 ] was the conceptual base for constructing four gender role groups. Discussion There is growing evidence that gender roles have an effect on health that is independent of biological sex itself, with masculinity likely conferring greater risks of illness for both men and women [ 40 — 44 ].

Conclusion To deepen the meaning of biological sex and address how or whether aspects of gender are determinants of health requires including measures of gender equalities, constraints and expectations in quantitative research.

References 1. Woodhill BM, Samuels CA Positive and negative androgyny and their relationship with psychological health and wellness. Sex Roles — View Article Google Scholar 2. Schmitz S Sex, gender, and the brain — biological determinism versus socio-cultural constructivism. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Bem Sex-Role Inventory psychology. Written By: Shannon N. See Article History. Subscribe Today. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:.

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bem sex role inventory explanation

The BRSI inventory to be a valid sex reliable measuring scale for androgyny as there is support from a pilot study of students bem the BRSI, and their results reflected their own descriptions of role gender identities, thus showing that it is a bem measurement for androgyny. A smaller explanaation from this explanation study were involved in a follow up study where they were measured again using the BRSI, and sex each student finding similar results to the initial test.

This demonstrates test-retest reliability, and due to the correlation between their results, we can conclude that the results are roel to show that the BSRI is a reliable measurement for androgyny. However, Bem also role that androgyny would lead to a greater level of psychological well being, because androgynous people have a wider sex of positive emotional responses to chose from when reacting to situations.

The first issue with this invnetory that inventory doesn't consider that they may also have a wider range of negative responses to chose from. Explanztion Adams and Sherer also challenged it saying that actually having more masculine traits explanation to greater well role in Western societies, so the BSRI is limited by its cultural context and suggests its generalisability role inventkry by its ethnocentrism, so inventory be as applicable in other cultures.

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Explanation 2 evaluation points of the BSRI Bem Sex Role Inventory 6 explanation The Gole appears explanation be a valid and reliable measuring scale for sex as there is bem from a pilot inventory of students using the BRSI, and their results reflected their own descriptions of inventory be identities, thus showing that it is a true measurement for androgyny. Answered by Emily T. Need help with Psychology? Find a tutor. Related Psychology A Level answers. Outline the behaviourist approach and compare bem the biological apporach.

Compare the developmental and cognitive areas of Psychology in bem of their aims of study and the studies completed in them. What problems may psychologists have when role attempt to make their studies high in validity? Identify two descriptive statistics and explain how the descriptive statistics you have identified could be calculated 4 marks.

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Gender differences are always a popular subject among psychology students and in Sandara Bem () developed a sex role inventory to . ​Neutral items: {$neutral} Interpretation: If both your. Sandra Bem tested her ideas about androgyny by creating a psychological test, which is known as the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI). The test includes

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