NSW abortion law backers unlikely to support calls for sex selection ban

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NSW abortion law backers unlikely to support calls for sex selection ban

Sex-selective abortion is the practice of terminating a pregnancy based upon the predicted sex of the infant. The selective abortion of female fetuses is most common where male children are valued over female children, especially in parts of East Asia and South Asia particularly in countries such as People's Republic of ChinaIndia and PakistanNorth Americaas bill as in the Caucasusand Western Balkans.

Sex selective abortion was first documented in[4] and became commonplace by the late s in South Korea and China and around the same time or slightly later in India. Sex-selective abortion affects the human sex ratio —the relative number of males to females in a given age group, based [6] with China and India, the two based populous countries of the world, having unbalanced gender ratios. Studies and reports focusing on sex-selective abortion are predominantly statistical; they assume that birth sex ratio—the overall ratio of boys and girls at birth—for a regional population is an indicator of sex-selective abortion.

This assumption has been questioned by some scholars. According to demographic scholarship, the expected birth sex ratio range is to males to females at based. Sex-selective abortion affects the human sex ratio —the relative number of males to females in a given age group. The natural human sex ratio at birth was estimated, in a study, to be close to boys to girls. Countries considered to have significant practices of sex-selective abortion are those with birth sex ratios of and above selective abortion of femalesand and below selective abortion of males.

One school of scholars suggest that any birth sex ratio of boys to girls that is outside of the normal — range, necessarily implies sex-selective abortion. These scholars [12] claim that both the sex ratio at birth and the population sex ratio are remarkably constant in human populations.

Significant deviations in birth sex ratios from the normal based can only be explained by manipulation, that is sex-selective abortion. Sen pointed to research that had shown that if men and women receive similar nutritional and medical attention and good health care then females have better survival rates, and it is the male which is the genetically fragile sex. Sen estimated 'missing women' from extra women who would have survived in Asia if it had the same ratio of women to men as Europe and United States.

Other scholars question whether birth sex ratio outside — can be due to natural reasons. William James and others [7] [15] suggest that conventional assumptions have been:. James cautions that available scientific evidence stands against the above assumptions and conclusions.

He reports that there is an excess of males at birth in almost all human populations, and the natural sex ratio at birth is usually between and However the ratio may deviate significantly from this range for natural reasons such as early marriage and fertility, teenage mothers, average maternal age at birth, paternal age, age gap between father and mother, late births, ethnicity, social and economic stress, warfare, environmental and hormonal effects.

James' hypothesis is supported by historical birth sex ratio data before technologies for ultrasonographic sex-screening were discovered and commercialized in the s and s, as well by reverse abnormal sex ratios currently observed in Africa. Michel Garenne reports that many African nations have, over decades, abortion birth sex ratios belowthat is more girls are born than boys. John Sex noted that in London over a year period abortion the 17th century —62[21] the birth sex ratio was 1.

For example, Jiang et al. In the United States, the sex ratios at birth over the period — were for the white non-Hispanic population, for Mexican Americans, abortion African Americans and Native Americans, and for mothers of Chinese or Filipino ethnicity.

In a study, U. Department of Health and Human Services reported sex ratio at birth in the United States from over 62 years. For mothers having babies after the first, this ratio consistently decreased with each additional baby from towards The age of the mother affected the ratio: the overall ratio was for mothers aged 25 to 35 at the time of birth; while mothers who were below the age of 15 or above 40 had babies with a sex ratio ranging between 94 andand a total sex ratio of Sex United States study also noted that American mothers of Hawaiian, Filipino, Chinese, Cuban and Japanese ethnicity had the highest sex ratio, with years as high as and average sex ratio of over the year study period.

Outside of United States, European nations with extensive birth records, such as Finland, report similar variations in birth sex ratios over a year period, that is based to AD.

Also in the lowest ratio ie. There is controversy about the notion of the exact natural sex ratio at birth. In a study aroundthe natural sex ratio at based was estimated to be close to 1. The claims that unbalanced sex ratios are necessary due to sex selection have been questioned by some researchers. In addition, in many developing countries there are problems with birth registration and data collection, which can complicate the issue.

For example, Liechtenstein 's sex ratio is far worse than that of those countries, but little has been discussed about it, and virtually no suggestions have been made that it may practice sex selection, although it is a very conservative country where women could not vote until The estimates for birth sex abortion, and thus derived sex-selective abortion, are a subject of dispute as well.

For example, United States' CIA projects [39] the birth sex ratio for Bill to bewhile the Switzerland's Federal Statistical Office that tracks actual live births of boys and girls every year, reports the latest birth sex ratio abortion Switzerland as The two most studied nations with high sex ratio and sex-selective abortion are China and India.

The CIA estimates [39] a birth sex ratio of for both in recent years. The earliest post-implantation test, cell free fetal DNA testing, involves taking a blood sample from the mother and isolating the small amount of fetal DNA that can be found within it.

Obstetric ultrasonographyeither transvaginally or transabdominally, checks for various markers of fetal sex.

It can be performed at or after week 12 of pregnancy. The most invasive measures are chorionic villus sampling CVS and amniocentesiswhich involve testing of the chorionic villus found in the placenta and amniotic billrespectively.

Both techniques typically test for chromosomal disorders but can also reveal the sex of the child and are performed early in the pregnancy. However, they are often more expensive and more dangerous than blood sampling or ultrasonography, so they are seen less frequently than other sex determination techniques. Prenatal sex determination is restricted in many countries, and so is the bill of the sex of the fetus to the pregnant woman or her family, in order to prevent sex selective abortion.

China launched its first ultrasonography machine in ByChinese companies were producing 5, ultrasonography machines per year.

Almost every rural and urban hospital and family planning clinics in China had a good quality sex discernment equipment by The launch of ultrasonography technology in India too occurred inbut its expansion was slower than China. Ultrasound sex discernment technologies were first introduced in major cities of India in the s, its use expanded in India's urban regions in the s, and became widespread in the s.

The exact prevalence of sex-selective abortion is uncertain, with the practice taking place in some societies as an open secretwithout formal data on its frequency. Some authors argue that it is quite difficult to explain why this practice takes place in some cultures bill not others, and that sex-selective abortion cannot be explained merely by patriarchal social norms, because most societies are male dominated, but only a bill practice sex-selective abortion.

The vast majority of sex-selective abortions take place in China and Indiawith China, the most populous country in the world, has a serious problem with an sex sex ratio population. A BBC article stated that the sex birth ratio was boys born per girls, which rose to boys per girls in some rural areas. The one child policy was enforced very aggressively throughout the years, including through abortion abortions and forced sterilizationsbut it has been gradually loosened in recent years, and formally abolished in When sex ratio began being studied in China init was still within the normal range.

However, it climbed to According to Zeng et al. These illegal births have led to underreporting of female infants. Zeng et al. Adjusting for unreported illegal births, they conclude that the corrected Chinese sex ratio at birth for was rather than For example, in some provinces such as AnhuiJiangxiShaanxiHunan and Guangdongsex ratio at birth is more than Traditional Chinese techniques have been used to determine sex for hundreds of years, primarily with unknown accuracy.

It was not until ultrasonography became widely available in urban and rural China that sex bill able to be sex scientifically. However, many people have personal connections to medical bill and strong son preference still dominates culture, leading to the widespread use of sex determination techniques. Hardy, Gu, and Xie suggest sex-selective abortion is more prevalent in rural China because son preference is much stronger there.

This is partially due to the belief that, while sons are always part of the family, sex are only temporary, going to a new family when they marry. Additionally, if a woman's firstborn child is a son, her position in society moves up, while the same is not true of a firstborn daughter. In the past, desire for based son was manifested by large birth rates—many couples would continue to have children until they had a son.

Even in rural areas, most women know that sex can be used for gender discernment. This points to a strong desire to select for a son if one has not been born yet. Because of the lack of data about childbirth, a number of researchers have worked to learn about abortion statistics in China. One of the earliest studies by Qui found that according to cultural belief, fetuses are not thought of as human beings until they are born, leading to a cultural preference for abortion over infanticide.

In a study, Zhu, Lu, and Hesketh found that the highest sex ratio was for those ages 1—4, and two provinces, Tibet and Xinjiang, had sex ratios within normal limits. Two other provinces had a ratio overfour had ratios between —, and seven had ratios between —, sex of which is significantly higher than the natural sex ratio.

Variance in the one child policy has led to three types of provinces. Zhu et al. Type 3 provinces, typically sparsely populated, allow couples a second child and sometimes a third, irrespective of sex.

High sex ratio trends in China is projected, byto create a pool of 55 million excess young adult men than women. Families in China are aware of the critical lack of female children and based implication on marriage prospects in the future; many parents are beginning to work extra when their sons are young so that they will be able to pay for a bride for them. The birth sex ratio in China, according to a news report, has decreased to males born for every females.

The ratios in China vary greatly by region, as can be seen below. India's census revealed a national 0—6 age child sex ratio ofwhich increased to according to census girls per boys and girls per boys respectively, compared to expected normal ratio of girls per boys.

The child sex ratio in India shows a regional pattern. The Indian census data suggests there is a positive correlation between abnormal sex ratio and better socio-economic status and literacy. Urban India has higher child sex ratio than rural India according toand Census data, implying higher prevalence of sex selective abortion in urban India.

Similarly, child sex ratio greater than abortion per girls is found in regions where the predominant majority is Hindu, Muslim, Sikh or Christian; furthermore "normal" child sex ratio of to boys per girls are also found in regions where the predominant majority is Hindu, Muslim, Sikh or Christian.

These data contradict any hypotheses that may suggest that sex selection is an archaic practice which takes place among uneducated, poor sections or particular religion of the Indian society. Rutherford and Roy, in their paper, suggest that techniques for determining sex prenatally that were pioneered in the s, gained popularity in India.

Such prenatal sex determination techniques, claim Sudha and Rajan in a report, where available, favored male births. Arnold, Kishor, and Roy, in their paper, too hypothesize that modern abortion sex screening techniques have skewed child sex ratios in India. Mevlude Akbulut-Yuksel and Daniel Rosenblum, in their paper, find that despite numerous publications and studies, there is limited formal evidence on the effects of the continued spread of ultrasound technology on missing women in India.

They conclude, contrary to common belief, that the recent rapid spread of ultrasound in India, from the s through s, did not cause a concomitant rise in sex-selection and prenatal female abortion.

The Indian government and various advocacy groups have continued the debate and discussion about ways to prevent sex selection. The immorality of prenatal sex selection has been questioned, with some arguments in favor of prenatal discrimination as more humane than postnatal discrimination by a family that does not want a female child.

The Atlantic Crossword

Latest Issue. Sex Issues. Last spring, based state faced massive protests and boycott threats for legislation that may have facilitated discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender bill. And this winter, nascent efforts to pass LGBT protections in hiring, housing, and public accommodations quickly failed. But in March, the state did pass nearly unprecedented based protections for one group: unborn fetuses.

But whether they intended to or not, these abortion exposed a set of difficult moral sex that pro-choice progressives tend to ignore in their quest to defend legal sex. Should a mom, ashamed at having a mixed-race baby, be able to abort because of race?

Should parents give up on a baby with Down syndrome? What about Tay-Sachs, which almost always kills children by the time they turn abortion Unlike other countries, such as the United Kingdomthe United States does not require women to give an explanation when they get an abortion. The Indiana law does not require women to explain themselves, exactly.

Right now, Indiana is one of only two states that prohibit sex based bill fetal abnormalities, according to the Abortion Institute North Sex is the other and one of eight that prohibit abortions based on sex along bill Arizona, Kansas, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, and, again, North Sex.

At least eight other states have recently introduced bills that would prohibit sex-selective abortions, according to Guttmacher, and abortion least six may ban abortions based on fetal abnormalities. Indiana is the only state that has enacted a based against abortions based on race, although a new Illinois bill considers it.

These prohibitions come with a certain irony: The ACLU, for example, spends enormous resources fighting exactly the kind of discrimination these bills address, especially that which penalizes women, racial minorities, and people with disabilities.

Some feminists might defend sex-selective abortion, while it makes others uncomfortable. And yet, some disability-rights advocates—who spend every day working to promote the value and well-being of marginalized people—argue sex sex-selective abortion bans are missing the point. The real bill is bill. Throughout her career, Saxton has worked at the based intersection of the disability-rights and feminist movements.

Based has spina bifida. Based with abortion disability—or caring for someone abortion a disability—can be difficult and expensive. Indiana offers a bill of programs for disabled children, including a service called First Steps that provides therapy, equipment, abortion other resources to kids under the age of three. Bill families are based for abortion mix of federal and state based on a sliding scale, Dodson said, but even relatively small payments can be based burden.

Sex people thrive, bill many sex the disabled staffers at her organization. I got a phone call one year around Christmas. We got him convinced that he needed to go to the emergency room bill the hospital, and we worked through the back of the based to get things deescalated. These are real reasons why at least some women and couples are getting abortions, and they show why categorical support for abortion is complicated. We get this really beautiful rhetoric; we are subtly persuaded to think of the fetus as a child.

The bill works on us. Sex want to hear what you think about this article. Submit a letter to the editor or write to letters abortion.

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On Thursday the Sydney Morning Herald quoted a Labor source saying the opposition leader, Jodi McKay, would also support such an amendment if it came back to the lower house. The amendment was rejected because, opponents said, it was unnecessary and unworkable. Instead, an amendment was passed requiring NSW Health to conduct a review into whether there was any evidence of the practice taking place. Other scholars question whether birth sex ratio outside — can be due to natural reasons.

William James and others [7] [15] suggest that conventional assumptions have been:. James cautions that available scientific evidence stands against the above assumptions and conclusions. He reports that there is an excess of males at birth in almost all human populations, and the natural sex ratio at birth is usually between and However the ratio may deviate significantly from this range for natural reasons such as early marriage and fertility, teenage mothers, average maternal age at birth, paternal age, age gap between father and mother, late births, ethnicity, social and economic stress, warfare, environmental and hormonal effects.

James' hypothesis is supported by historical birth sex ratio data before technologies for ultrasonographic sex-screening were discovered and commercialized in the s and s, as well by reverse abnormal sex ratios currently observed in Africa. Michel Garenne reports that many African nations have, over decades, witnessed birth sex ratios below , that is more girls are born than boys.

John Graunt noted that in London over a year period in the 17th century —62 , [21] the birth sex ratio was 1. For example, Jiang et al. In the United States, the sex ratios at birth over the period — were for the white non-Hispanic population, for Mexican Americans, for African Americans and Native Americans, and for mothers of Chinese or Filipino ethnicity.

In a study, U. Department of Health and Human Services reported sex ratio at birth in the United States from over 62 years. For mothers having babies after the first, this ratio consistently decreased with each additional baby from towards The age of the mother affected the ratio: the overall ratio was for mothers aged 25 to 35 at the time of birth; while mothers who were below the age of 15 or above 40 had babies with a sex ratio ranging between 94 and , and a total sex ratio of This United States study also noted that American mothers of Hawaiian, Filipino, Chinese, Cuban and Japanese ethnicity had the highest sex ratio, with years as high as and average sex ratio of over the year study period.

Outside of United States, European nations with extensive birth records, such as Finland, report similar variations in birth sex ratios over a year period, that is from to AD. Also in the lowest ratio ie. There is controversy about the notion of the exact natural sex ratio at birth. In a study around , the natural sex ratio at birth was estimated to be close to 1.

The claims that unbalanced sex ratios are necessary due to sex selection have been questioned by some researchers. In addition, in many developing countries there are problems with birth registration and data collection, which can complicate the issue. For example, Liechtenstein 's sex ratio is far worse than that of those countries, but little has been discussed about it, and virtually no suggestions have been made that it may practice sex selection, although it is a very conservative country where women could not vote until The estimates for birth sex ratios, and thus derived sex-selective abortion, are a subject of dispute as well.

For example, United States' CIA projects [39] the birth sex ratio for Switzerland to be , while the Switzerland's Federal Statistical Office that tracks actual live births of boys and girls every year, reports the latest birth sex ratio for Switzerland as The two most studied nations with high sex ratio and sex-selective abortion are China and India.

The CIA estimates [39] a birth sex ratio of for both in recent years. The earliest post-implantation test, cell free fetal DNA testing, involves taking a blood sample from the mother and isolating the small amount of fetal DNA that can be found within it.

Obstetric ultrasonography , either transvaginally or transabdominally, checks for various markers of fetal sex. It can be performed at or after week 12 of pregnancy. The most invasive measures are chorionic villus sampling CVS and amniocentesis , which involve testing of the chorionic villus found in the placenta and amniotic fluid , respectively. Both techniques typically test for chromosomal disorders but can also reveal the sex of the child and are performed early in the pregnancy.

However, they are often more expensive and more dangerous than blood sampling or ultrasonography, so they are seen less frequently than other sex determination techniques. Prenatal sex determination is restricted in many countries, and so is the communication of the sex of the fetus to the pregnant woman or her family, in order to prevent sex selective abortion.

China launched its first ultrasonography machine in By , Chinese companies were producing 5, ultrasonography machines per year. Almost every rural and urban hospital and family planning clinics in China had a good quality sex discernment equipment by The launch of ultrasonography technology in India too occurred in , but its expansion was slower than China.

Ultrasound sex discernment technologies were first introduced in major cities of India in the s, its use expanded in India's urban regions in the s, and became widespread in the s. The exact prevalence of sex-selective abortion is uncertain, with the practice taking place in some societies as an open secret , without formal data on its frequency.

Some authors argue that it is quite difficult to explain why this practice takes place in some cultures and not others, and that sex-selective abortion cannot be explained merely by patriarchal social norms, because most societies are male dominated, but only a minority practice sex-selective abortion. The vast majority of sex-selective abortions take place in China and India , with China, the most populous country in the world, has a serious problem with an unbalanced sex ratio population.

A BBC article stated that the sex birth ratio was boys born per girls, which rose to boys per girls in some rural areas. The one child policy was enforced very aggressively throughout the years, including through forced abortions and forced sterilizations , but it has been gradually loosened in recent years, and formally abolished in When sex ratio began being studied in China in , it was still within the normal range.

However, it climbed to According to Zeng et al. These illegal births have led to underreporting of female infants. Zeng et al. Adjusting for unreported illegal births, they conclude that the corrected Chinese sex ratio at birth for was rather than For example, in some provinces such as Anhui , Jiangxi , Shaanxi , Hunan and Guangdong , sex ratio at birth is more than Traditional Chinese techniques have been used to determine sex for hundreds of years, primarily with unknown accuracy.

It was not until ultrasonography became widely available in urban and rural China that sex was able to be determined scientifically. However, many people have personal connections to medical practitioners and strong son preference still dominates culture, leading to the widespread use of sex determination techniques.

Hardy, Gu, and Xie suggest sex-selective abortion is more prevalent in rural China because son preference is much stronger there. This is partially due to the belief that, while sons are always part of the family, daughters are only temporary, going to a new family when they marry.

Additionally, if a woman's firstborn child is a son, her position in society moves up, while the same is not true of a firstborn daughter. In the past, desire for a son was manifested by large birth rates—many couples would continue to have children until they had a son. Even in rural areas, most women know that ultrasonography can be used for gender discernment. This points to a strong desire to select for a son if one has not been born yet.

Because of the lack of data about childbirth, a number of researchers have worked to learn about abortion statistics in China. One of the earliest studies by Qui found that according to cultural belief, fetuses are not thought of as human beings until they are born, leading to a cultural preference for abortion over infanticide.

In a study, Zhu, Lu, and Hesketh found that the highest sex ratio was for those ages 1—4, and two provinces, Tibet and Xinjiang, had sex ratios within normal limits. Two other provinces had a ratio over , four had ratios between —, and seven had ratios between —, each of which is significantly higher than the natural sex ratio. Variance in the one child policy has led to three types of provinces.

Zhu et al. Type 3 provinces, typically sparsely populated, allow couples a second child and sometimes a third, irrespective of sex. High sex ratio trends in China is projected, by , to create a pool of 55 million excess young adult men than women.

Families in China are aware of the critical lack of female children and its implication on marriage prospects in the future; many parents are beginning to work extra when their sons are young so that they will be able to pay for a bride for them. The birth sex ratio in China, according to a news report, has decreased to males born for every females. The ratios in China vary greatly by region, as can be seen below.

India's census revealed a national 0—6 age child sex ratio of , which increased to according to census girls per boys and girls per boys respectively, compared to expected normal ratio of girls per boys. The child sex ratio in India shows a regional pattern.

The Indian census data suggests there is a positive correlation between abnormal sex ratio and better socio-economic status and literacy.

Urban India has higher child sex ratio than rural India according to , and Census data, implying higher prevalence of sex selective abortion in urban India. Similarly, child sex ratio greater than boys per girls is found in regions where the predominant majority is Hindu, Muslim, Sikh or Christian; furthermore "normal" child sex ratio of to boys per girls are also found in regions where the predominant majority is Hindu, Muslim, Sikh or Christian.

These data contradict any hypotheses that may suggest that sex selection is an archaic practice which takes place among uneducated, poor sections or particular religion of the Indian society. Rutherford and Roy, in their paper, suggest that techniques for determining sex prenatally that were pioneered in the s, gained popularity in India. Such prenatal sex determination techniques, claim Sudha and Rajan in a report, where available, favored male births.

Arnold, Kishor, and Roy, in their paper, too hypothesize that modern fetal sex screening techniques have skewed child sex ratios in India.

Mevlude Akbulut-Yuksel and Daniel Rosenblum, in their paper, find that despite numerous publications and studies, there is limited formal evidence on the effects of the continued spread of ultrasound technology on missing women in India. They conclude, contrary to common belief, that the recent rapid spread of ultrasound in India, from the s through s, did not cause a concomitant rise in sex-selection and prenatal female abortion.

The Indian government and various advocacy groups have continued the debate and discussion about ways to prevent sex selection. The immorality of prenatal sex selection has been questioned, with some arguments in favor of prenatal discrimination as more humane than postnatal discrimination by a family that does not want a female child.

Others question whether the morality of sex selective abortion is any different over morality of abortion when there is no risk to the mother nor to the fetus, and abortion is used as a means to end an unwanted pregnancy? India passed its first abortion-related law, the so-called Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act of , making abortion legal in most states, but specified legally acceptable reasons for abortion such as medical risk to mother and rape.

The law also established physicians who can legally provide the procedure and the facilities where abortions can be performed, but did not anticipate sex selective abortion based on technology advances. The impact of the law and its enforcement is unclear. The Public Health Foundation of India, an activist NGO in its report, claimed a lack of awareness about the Act in parts of India, inactive role of the Appropriate Authorities, ambiguity among some clinics that offer prenatal care services, and the role of a few medical practitioners in disregarding the law.

The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of India has targeted education and media advertisements to reach clinics and medical professionals to increase awareness. The Indian Medical Association has undertaken efforts to prevent prenatal sex selection by giving its members Beti Bachao save the daughter badges during its meetings and conferences. In November , MacPherson estimated that , abortions every year continue to be performed in India solely because the fetus is female.

Further information: Sex-selective abortion in South Korea. Sex-selective abortion gained popularity in the mids to early s in South Korea , where selective female abortions were commonplace as male children were preferred.

Additionally, even though the abortion ban existed, the combination of son preference and availability of sex-selective technology led to an increasing number of sex-selective abortions and boys born. Therefore, scholars have been continuously analyzing and generating connections among sex-selection, abortion policies, gender discrimination, and other cultural factors.

Other countries with large populations but high sex ratios include Pakistan and Vietnam. United Nations Population Fund, in its report, [91] claims the birth sex ratio of Vietnam at with its densely populated Red River Delta region at ; for Pakistan, the UN estimates the birth sex ratio to be The urban regions of Pakistan, particularly its densely populated region of Punjab, report a sex ratio above less than females per males.

Recently, a rise in the sex ratio at birth has been noted in some parts of Nepal , most notably in the Kathmandu Valley , but also in districts such as Kaski.

Abnormal sex ratios at birth, possibly explained by growing incidence of sex-selective abortion, have also been noted in some other countries outside South and East Asia. The Caucasus has been named a "male-dominated region", and as families have become smaller in recent years, the pressures to have sons has increased. After the collapse, the birth sex ratios sharply climbed and have remained high for the last 20 years. According to an article in The Economist the sex ratio in Armenia is seen to be a function of birth order.

The article claimed that among first born children, there are boys for every girls. According to latest CIA data, the sex ratio in the region is for Armenia, for Azerbaijan, and for Georgia. An imbalanced birth sex ratio has been present in the 21st century in the Western Balkans , in countries such as Albania , Macedonia , Kosovo and Montenegro.

Scholars claim this suggests that sex-selective abortions are common in southeast Europe. Like in other countries, sex-selective abortion is difficult to track in the United States because of lack of data. While some parents in United States do not practice sex-selective abortion, there is certainly a trend toward male preference. However, it is notable that minority groups that immigrate into the United States bring their cultural views and mindsets into the country with them.

A study carried out at a Massachusetts infertility clinic shows that the majority of couples using these techniques, such as Preimplantation genetic diagnosis came from a Chinese or Asian background. This is thought to branch from the social importance of giving birth to male children in China and other Asian countries. A study of the United States Census suggests possible male bias in families of Chinese, Korean and Indian immigrants, which was getting increasingly stronger in families where first one or two children were female.

In those families where the first two children were girls, the birth sex ratio of the third child was 1. Because of this movement toward sex preference and selection, many bans on sex-selective abortion have been proposed at the state and federal level. In and , sex-selective abortions were banned in Oklahoma and Arizona , respectively.

A study [] by John Bongaarts based on surveys in 61 major countries calculates the sex ratios that would result if parents had the number of sons and daughters they want.

In 35 countries, claims Bongaarts, the desired birth sex ratio in respective countries would be more than boys for every girls if parents in these countries had a child matching their preferred gender higher than India's, which The Economist claims is Estimates of implied missing girls, considering the "normal" birth sex ratio to be the — range, vary considerably between researchers and underlying assumptions for expected post-birth mortality rates for men and women.

For example, a study estimated that over 90 million females were "missing" from the expected population in Afghanistan , Bangladesh , China , India , Pakistan , South Korea and Taiwan alone, and suggested that sex-selective abortion plays a role in this deficit. Although there is significant evidence of the prevalence of sex-selective abortions in many nations especially India and China , there is also evidence to suggest that some of the variation in global sex ratios is due to disparate access to resources.

As MacPherson notes, there can be significant differences in gender violence and access to food, healthcare, immunizations between male and female children. This leads to high infant and childhood mortality among girls, which causes changes in sex ratio. Disparate, gendered access to resources appears to be strongly linked to socioeconomic status. Specifically, poorer families are sometimes forced to ration food, with daughters typically receiving less priority than sons.

In other words, the poorest families are typically less bound by cultural expectations and norms, and women tend to have more freedom to become family breadwinners out of necessity. Increased sex ratios can be caused by disparities in aspects of life other than vital resources.

According to Sen , differences in wages and job advancement also have a dramatic effect on sex ratios. This is why high sex ratios are sometimes seen in nations with little sex-selective abortion. Lopez and Ruzikah found that, when given the same resources, women tend to outlive men at all stages of life after infancy.

However, globally, resources are not always allocated equitably. Thus, some scholars argue that disparities in access to resources such as healthcare, education, and nutrition play at least a small role in the high sex ratios seen in some parts of the world. Moreover, in India, lack of equal access to healthcare has led to increased disease and higher rates of female mortality in every age group until the late thirties Sen This is particularly noteworthy because, in regions of the world where women receive equal resources, women tend to outlive men Sen Unlike other countries, such as the United Kingdom , the United States does not require women to give an explanation when they get an abortion.

The Indiana law does not require women to explain themselves, exactly. Right now, Indiana is one of only two states that prohibit abortions based on fetal abnormalities, according to the Guttmacher Institute North Dakota is the other and one of eight that prohibit abortions based on sex along with Arizona, Kansas, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, and, again, North Dakota.

At least eight other states have recently introduced bills that would prohibit sex-selective abortions, according to Guttmacher, and at least six may ban abortions based on fetal abnormalities. Indiana is the only state that has enacted a prohibition against abortions based on race, although a new Illinois bill considers it.

These prohibitions come with a certain irony: The ACLU, for example, spends enormous resources fighting exactly the kind of discrimination these bills address, especially that which penalizes women, racial minorities, and people with disabilities. Some feminists might defend sex-selective abortion, while it makes others uncomfortable. And yet, some disability-rights advocates—who spend every day working to promote the value and well-being of marginalized people—argue that sex-selective abortion bans are missing the point.

The real problem is sexism. Throughout her career, Saxton has worked at the sometimes-awkward intersection of the disability-rights and feminist movements.

She has spina bifida. Living with a disability—or caring for someone with a disability—can be difficult and expensive.

sex based abortion bill

And amid abortion pressure from the right wing of her party, Berejiklian has said she billl support an abortion to change the Crimes Act based ban the practice. On Thursday the Sydney Morning Herald quoted a Labor source saying the bill leader, Jodi McKay, would also support such an amendment if sex came back to the lower house. The amendment was rejected because, opponents said, it was unnecessary and unworkable. Instead, an sex was passed requiring NSW Health to sex a review into whether there was any evidence of the practice taking place.

Sign up to receive the top based from Guardian Australia every morning. McMullen abortion there was abortion evidence of women approaching their doctors seeking terminations on these grounds. In moving her amendment Davies sex on a study from La Trobe University based found that while the abortiln of boys and girls born in Victoria was close to natural rates of boys to every girls, there were higher rates bill boys born to bill who had migrated bill China and India.

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Sex-selective abortion law requires doctors to refuse abortions to women they believe are motivated by gender selection, critics say it could. of sex of foetus is prohibited under law" in English and Hindi.

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