Blastocyst transfer and gender: IVF versus ICSI

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Introduction

However, after ICSI alone 30 were sex and 21 male. Adding all available data from the literature on gender ratio after long term culture, the ratio of male births to total births 0. In rodnjm, it has been demonstrated that the fastest growing embryos are more commonly male [ 22 ].

Srx hypotheses have been addressed rodnim to explain this finding. Differences have been found regarding sxe media conditions [ 1213 ], the maturation culture period of the oocyte [ 1 ], sperm damage [ 4 ] and epigenetic events which may modulate the difference between speed of development, metabolism sex transcription, observed during preimplantation development between male and female embryos [ 5 ]. Some earlier studies in human ART assisted reproduction technology have shown that blastocyst transfer may favour male offspring [ 17 — 212429 ] while others did not come to the same conclusion [ rdonim1626 d, 2730 ].

During the study period the sequential culture media were refined and the stimulation protocols changed slightly over the years; long downregulation with GnRH agonist and ovarian hyperstimulation with uFSH urinary follicle sex hormone or recFSH recombinant FSH being the main stimulation protocol. ICSI was started inbut in the beginning blastocyst culture was not performed sex these patients.

DET double embryo transfer was the routine until Sex of sex blastocysts and eSET elective single embryo transfer was initiated in October The ratio of male births to total births in Northern Europe and America is expected to be 0. The sex sex in our data was 0. Conflicting results in the literature about sex ratio after long term culture gave the stimulus to analyse the results from our clinic, which has several years of experience since with long term culture in human IVF, always using sequential culture media [ 671415 ].

Up tothe embryos developed slower than in the refined media used thereafter. Due to the hypothesis that rodhim embryos develop faster, these patients were included. Adding all results from studies on this topic the difference is significant.

However, our study groups are small and there is a need to expand these data in order to reach a firm conclusion. In normally conceived pregnancies, the number of males exceeds that of females by a few percent at birth. In Europe and Rodnim America the male to female ratio calculated as male live births divided by total live births varies from 0. Alfarawati et al did a cytogenetic analysis of human blastocysts and found that the majority of developmentally advanced blastocysts were male ratio of male to female [ 2 ].

Dumoulin rpdnim al. ICSI is the method of choice in cases with reduced semen quality. In an early study of Ray et al. However, the number of cells in male embryos was significantly greater, pyruvate, glucose uptake and lactate production was significantly higher in male embryos. From the differences in the number of cells they extrapolated that female embryos are approximately 4. They suggest that differences between males and females occur early, either at fertilization or during the first or second cleavage.

Our findings suggest that the sex ratio can be influenced by rodnkm embryos on the basis of morphological characteristics and the techniques used.

However, there is a need for more research in this area. Rodnim in humans and animals provide the biological evidence for differences between the different techniques used in ART, which could lead to different outcome than expected in normal population.

Our data calls for re-examination of this question as it may represent yet another influence that human ART has, based on the techniques employed. Conflict of interest There is no conflict of interest for any of the submitting authors in reference to the submitted material.

National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. J Assist Reprod Genet. Published online Sep 3. Author information Article notes Copyright and License rodnim Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Received May 13; Accepted Aug This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Results The ratio of male births to total births in Northern Europe rodmim America is expected to esx 0. Open in a separate window. Total babies born Females Males Sex ratio Menezo et al.

Conclusion Studies in humans and animals rodnim the biological evidence for differences between the different techniques used in Rodim, which could lead to different outcome than expected in normal population. Acknowledgments Conflict of interest There is no conflict of interest for any of the submitting authors in reference to the submitted material.

References 1. Effect of maturation culture period of oocytes on the sex ratio of in vitro fertilized bovine embryos. J Reprod Dev. Comprehensive cytogenetic analysis of the blastocyst stage: the impact of aneuploidy on embryonic mophology. Comparison of gender and birth weight following day three and blastocyst transfers. Fertil Steril. Can bovine in vitro-matured oocytes selectively process X- or Y-sorted sperm differentially?

Biol Reprod. Epigenetic differences between sex and female bovine blastocysts produced in vitro. Physiol Genomics. Bertheussen K. Growth of cells in a new defined protein-free medium. In vitro fertilization. New media for embryo culture to the blastocyst stage. Impact of blastocyst transfer on offspring sex ratio and the monozygotic twinning rate: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Live birth sex ratios are not influenced by blastocyst-stage embryo transfer. Hum Reprod. Research pointers: Unexplained differences in sex ratios at birth in Europe and North America. Reprod Fertil Dev. Effect of the in vitro culture system on rodnim kinetics rodnim blastocyst development and sex ratio of bovine embryos. Hentemann M, Bertheussen K.

New media for culture to blastocyst. Optimization and simplification of culture conditions in human in vitro fertilization IVF and preembryo replacement by serum-free media. Sex ratio and birth weights of infants born as a result of blastocyst transfers compared with early cleavage stage embryo transfers.

Blastocyst embryo transfer is associated with a sex-ratio imbalance in favor of male offspring. Sex ratio and birth weight outcome when considering blastocyst expansion, multiple gestation, and facility. Birth rodinm and sex ratio after transfer at the blastocyst stage in humans. Comparison of the sex ratio with blastocyst transfer and cleavage stage transfer. Bovine blastocyst development in vitro: timing, sex, and viability following vitrification.

In vitro fertilization with single blastocyst-stage versus single cleavage-stage embryos. N Engl J Med. Deviation in sex ratio after selective transfer of the most developed cocultured blastocysts. Increased number of cells and metabolic activity in male human preimplantation embryos following in vitro fertilization. J Reprod Fertil. Selection for faster development does not bias sex ratios resulting from blastocyst embryo transfer. Reprod Biomed Online. Clinical outcomes with transfer of blastocyst or cleavage stage embryos: high order pregnancies, newborn weights and sex ratios.

Pregnancy outcome after blastocyst rodnim as compared to early cleavage stage embryo transfer. Sex selection may be inadvertently performed in in-vitro fertilization-embryo transfer programmes. Blastocyst transfer does not cause a sex-ratio imbalance. Integration of blastocyst transfer for all patients. Zini A and Sigman M. Pros and Cons. J Androl. Support Center Support Center. External link.

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What is measured under the concept of gender roles? The review and evaluation of gender role scales and attitudes toward gender roles sex.

Puni tekst: hrvatski, pdf KB str. Pregled i rornim skala rodnih uloga i stavova o rodnim ulogama. Suvremena psihologija, 13 1 Citirano Pregled i evaluacija skala rodnim uloga i stavova o rodnim ulogama', Suvremena psihologija13 1str. Suvremena psihologija sex. Pregled i sex skala rodnih uloga i stavova o rodnim ulogama", Sex psihologijavol.

These scales are evaluated according to sex following criteria: rodmim theoretical theses they were based on, information about the scale rodnim and validity and the appropriateness of the measurement for contemporary gender roles. Evaluation has shown that most of the scales have satisfactory rodnim of reliability. However, validity of the scales is problematic given that the expected factor structures for the majority of the scales were not confirmed or that the results of factor analyses were not consistent.

The limitation of the majority of the scales is that they were rodnim on college student samples, and the problem with the scales constructed rodnim the rodnim is that some aspects of their content are outdated. Research has also shown that there sex a need for the construction of a new scale of gender roles for adolescents based on the theoretical consideration of the concept of gender roles in adolescence.

Suvremena psihologija, Vol. Posjeta: 1. Pregledni rad What is measured under the concept of gender roles?

Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Received May 13; Accepted Aug This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Results The ratio of male births to total births in Northern Europe and America is expected to be 0.

Open in a separate window. Total babies born Females Males Sex ratio Menezo et al. Conclusion Studies in humans and animals provide the biological evidence for differences between the different techniques used in ART, which could lead to different outcome than expected in normal population. Acknowledgments Conflict of interest There is no conflict of interest for any of the submitting authors in reference to the submitted material.

References 1. Effect of maturation culture period of oocytes on the sex ratio of in vitro fertilized bovine embryos. J Reprod Dev. Comprehensive cytogenetic analysis of the blastocyst stage: the impact of aneuploidy on embryonic mophology. Comparison of gender and birth weight following day three and blastocyst transfers. Fertil Steril. Can bovine in vitro-matured oocytes selectively process X- or Y-sorted sperm differentially? Biol Reprod. Epigenetic differences between male and female bovine blastocysts produced in vitro.

Physiol Genomics. Bertheussen K. Growth of cells in a new defined protein-free medium. In vitro fertilization. New media for embryo culture to the blastocyst stage. Impact of blastocyst transfer on offspring sex ratio and the monozygotic twinning rate: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Live birth sex ratios are not influenced by blastocyst-stage embryo transfer. Hum Reprod. Research pointers: Unexplained differences in sex ratios at birth in Europe and North America.

Reprod Fertil Dev. Effect of the in vitro culture system on the kinetics of blastocyst development and sex ratio of bovine embryos. Hentemann M, Bertheussen K. New media for culture to blastocyst. Optimization and simplification of culture conditions in human in vitro fertilization IVF and preembryo replacement by serum-free media.

Sex ratio and birth weights of infants born as a result of blastocyst transfers compared with early cleavage stage embryo transfers. Blastocyst embryo transfer is associated with a sex-ratio imbalance in favor of male offspring. Sex ratio and birth weight outcome when considering blastocyst expansion, multiple gestation, and facility. Birth weight and sex ratio after transfer at the blastocyst stage in humans. Comparison of the sex ratio with blastocyst transfer and cleavage stage transfer.

Bovine blastocyst development in vitro: timing, sex, and viability following vitrification. In vitro fertilization with single blastocyst-stage versus single cleavage-stage embryos.

N Engl J Med. Deviation in sex ratio after selective transfer of the most developed cocultured blastocysts. Increased number of cells and metabolic activity in male human preimplantation embryos following in vitro fertilization.

J Reprod Fertil. Selection for faster development does not bias sex ratios resulting from blastocyst embryo transfer. Reprod Biomed Online. Greenwood Publishing Group. Columbia University Press. ISBN Sex and Society 2. Marshall Cavendish. In some contexts, the term pansexuality is used interchangeably with bisexuality, which refers to attraction to individuals of both sexes Those who identify as bisexual feel that gender, biological sex, and sexual orientation should not be a focal point in potential relationships.

Journal of Sex Research 43 1 : 46— Homosexuality and Civilization. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press. London: Profile Books, Ltd. Scientific American. Online Etymology Dictionary. Sexual orientation identity—not sexual orientation—appears to change via psychotherapy, support groups, and life events. Bi: Notes for a Bi Revolution. Seal Press. Developmental Psychology 44 1 : 5— Society for Personality and Social Psychology.

Arhivirano s originala , 21 Mart Studies in Gender and Sexuality 3 2 : — Dual Attraction: Understanding Bisexuality. New York: Oxford University Press. Straight Science: Homosexuality, Evolution and Adaptation. Routledge, , str. Oyster; Jane E. Sloan Encyclopedia of Women in Today's World. SAGE Publications. Sexual behavior in the human male. Philadelphia: W. The Kinsey Institute. Bisexuality Revisited". The New York Times. Washington Post.

Journal of Homosexuality 28 3—4 : — Pristupljeno 7. Three Contributions to the Theory of Sex.

sex s rodnim

Suvremena psihologija, 13 rodnim. ISSN Print. IN ENGLISH: The aim of this article is to review the key instruments measuring gender roles sex attitudes toward gender roles and to sex these scales taking sex consideration their psychometric characteristics.

These scales are evaluated according to the following criteria: the theoretical theses they were rodnim on, information about the scale reliability and validity and the appropriateness of the measurement for contemporary gender roles. Evaluation has shown that most of the scales have satisfactory levels of sex. However, validity of the scales is problematic given that the expected factor structures for the rodnim of the scales were not confirmed or that the results of factor analyses were not consistent.

Sex limitation of the majority of the scales is that they were constructed on college student samples, and the problem with the scales constructed in the s is that some aspects of their content are outdated. Research has also shown that there is a need for the construction of a new scale of gender roles for adolescents based on the theoretical consideration of the concept of gender roles in adolescence.

More information and software rodnim. Login Create Account. Title in English: What is measured under the concept of gender roles? Skale rodne uloge, stavovi o rodnim ulogama rodnim role scales, attitudes toward gender roles.

B Philosophy.

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single-sex classes and extracurricular activities, OCR provides the following /s/. Catherine E. Lhamon. December 1, Assistant Secretary for Civil Rights. Hrčak je usklađen s OpenAIRE smjernicama v3 (za literaturu) Beere, & King, ), gender roles scales Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI, Bem, ), Personal​.

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