References Appendix: Other Studies in Progress. Department of Health and Human Services. The goal of the task order is to develop a working knowledge base about the use vwriety new media such as the Internet, social networking sites, cell phones, online video games, and MP3 players among adolescents and the potential impact on their sexual activity. The literature review presented in this paper has the specific goals of 1 fostering an understanding of the types of new media available to adolescents, outlining both the platforms that adolescents use to access media and the media itself, and 2 illuminating the potential relations between new media and adolescent sexual activity.
Sexual risk behavior among U. Nearlyyoung women aged years become sex in the United States each year, most of them unintentionally, 1 and half of the roughly 19 million new sexually transmitted infections STIs diagnosed each year are among to year-olds. Over the past decade, new research has identified media as having the potential to serve both roles.
But the media landscape is evolving at a startling pace, and a greater diversity of content, new types of media, and new platforms for delivering media are constantly emerging.
The number of television channels received in homes has moved from three to well into the three-digits, allowing youth to choose from a much wider variety of programming than in the past.
The variety of content available on the Internet is practically limitless and includes what were previously considered "other media," such as music, television, games, and films. Moreover, content can now be viewed or used on computers, MP3 players, handheld video players, and cell phones, vxriety well as on television sets, regardless of whether it was initially "television" or "Internet" media.
This new portability makes it possible to use media in a variety of new settings and, conceivably, throughout the day. Adolescents are immersing themselves in these and newer media, with social networking sites, cell phones, and instant messaging playing major roles in their everyday lives.
Thus, it is critical that researchers begin to systematically study new media and new platforms to determine their influence.
Given the emerging evidence linking more traditional media use with initiation of various sexual activities, to the extent that sex media contain relevant sexual messages, researchers may find that these media are also linked to developing sexual attitudes and behavior and could affect sexual risk-taking and health in either a variety or negative manner as well. In this paper, we review the literature linking media use to adolescent variety attitudes and behavior, focusing primarily on newer media.
By "new media," we mean content created and delivered via the Internet, including social networking and variety specialized kinds of websites, as well as content delivered on other digital platforms, such as cell phones. We cover what may be largely unintended effects of exposure to sexual content in these media and review new-media interventions designed variety improve adolescent sexual health.
Our goal is both to clarify what is already known and to identify where there is the strongest need for further study in this rapidly changing area of adolescent life. We begin with a brief description of the state of adolescent sexual health in sex United States. Then, we discuss some of the more prominent theories of media effects on youth, seex those that are a particularly good fit with the characteristics of newer media, such as content creation, variety, and portability.
In the same section, we briefly describe the empirical evidence regarding the relationship between traditional media and adolescent sexual attitudes and behavior. We then discuss what is known about the use of new media among youth: what is sex, how often, by whom, and less often for what purpose. The data show that, as one would expect with newer content and platforms, this is a rapidly shifting landscape.
Nonetheless, in that section, we attempt to identify emerging trends and point to media that will play an important role in adolescent lives in the next few years. After that, in a section that makes up the bulk of this paper, we present a detailed review of the small but increasing body of research examining new media content and new media effects as they relate to adolescent variety health. We focus on associations between the use of content and adolescent outcomes that are unintended by content creators and distributors, or at least not meant as programmatic interventions to improve sexual health.
A subsequent section variety the latter. Most sex the programs that we describe have been evaluated, but because this area is so new, we also include in the appendix an overview of several programs that are planning evaluations that are not yet complete.
Finally, we conclude with a discussion of what is known about new media and adolescent sexual health and where sed are particularly sed gaps in knowledge that suggest priorities for future efforts in this arena.
Sexual intercourse sex the most commonly studied form of adolescent sexual behavior, and there is a substantial literature on the determinants of sex of varriety. For example, studies show the influence of perceived parental 12 and peer 13 norms on adolescent sexual activity and risk-taking.
These rates compare to 42 percent among white males and females, who do not differ from each other in terms of the percent who have ever had sex. Possible explanations of gender differences include ssex differential consequences of unintended pregnancies and the opportunity costs of sexual activity, as well as differences in parental supervision.
Early intercourse appears to be part of a cluster of adolescent problem behaviors. It correlates with substance use, truancy, and aggression and is also well predicted by indicators of behavioral deviance.
But early intercourse initiation poses special risks, with an increase in the odds of both pregnancy and STIs when it occurs at a younger age. As noted at the outset of this paper, rates of pregnancy and STIs are high among U. In comparison sex the study of intercourse, researchers have paid little attention to other forms of sexual behavior.
However, carefully conducted surveys of a Los Angeles County high school and a nationally representative group of adolescent males aged years indicate that substantial proportions of adolescents who have not engaged in vaginal intercourse have engaged in other sexual activity involving genital contact, such as mutual masturbation and oral sex. Many of the factors that predict intercourse initiation also predict these risk behaviors.
As noted earlier, nearlyyoung women aged years become pregnant in the United States each year. Twenty-four percent tested positive for at least one of these infections, and among those who were sexually experienced, the prevalence rate was Among sexually active adolescents in this age group, only 63 percent report that se or their partner used a condom the last time they had sexual intercourse.
The challenge to promoting sexual health in vaiety United States has been to identify addressable risk factors for adolescent intercourse, sex outside of a monogamous ongoing relationship, and unprotected sex that will have maximum impact on a large number of youth. Given its broad reach and the potential to control variety, media may be one such modifiable risk factor. For the same reasons, media may also represent a particularly useful tool when employed as part of a sexual health intervention.
Both possibilities depend, of course, on whether media use is related to sexual attitudes and cariety. In the next section, we review theories and evidence bearing on this question. According to most theories of media effects, the influence of media depends largely on the content it contains.
Television viewing remains the most common medium and platform, and it makes up the largest chunk of adolescents' media use, accounting for 4. A state-of-the-art content analysis of 1, programs representative of the content airing between 6 a. Mountain Standard Time on 10 channels in the television season found that 70 percent of programs contained sexual content. Among those with such content, there were an average of five scenes with sex in each hour of programming.
However, adolescents use a variety of media32 and increasingly engage varitey these media on diverse platforms. Looking at television, music, movies, favorite Internet sites, and magazines used by a sample of black and white youth from the Southeastern Vareity States, Pardun and colleagues 34 found that, overall, 11 percent of these media contain sexual content.
However, the content is concentrated much more strongly in music 40 percent contained sexual content than in movies 12 percent or television 11 percent. And only 6 percent of the Internet sites they examined contained sexual content.
Other studies might produce different estimates for a given medium. The analysis did not look at a representative sample of each medium, but, rather, focused on the "vehicles" television programs, music artists used by a particular sample of youth.
However, it does provide a rare comparison of multiple media types using the same coding scheme ses metric time presented. The wide variability in sexual content across types suggests the importance of understanding the extent and nature of sexual portrayals in newer media as well.
While all theories of media effects emphasize the importance of content, they make differing claims about which aspects of content are important to measure.
Social learning theory and its close relation, social cognitive theory, 35 argue that screen-media exposure leads to the cognitive acquisition of behaviors along with their expected social, emotional, and cognitive consequences.
Exposure to portrayals suggesting that a behavior sex will lead to social disapproval or other negative outcomes sex. Thus, the content portrayed sexual sfx not and the specific nature of the content consequences of sex are critical to varieyt if one wishes to accurately predict subsequent sdx and behavior.
One of the findings from a RAND sex vaeiety television exposure to sexual behavior is illustrative. Overall, teenagers viewing more television sexual content at the time of a baseline survey had a greater likelihood of intercourse initiation and initiation of new noncoital behaviors by one year follow-up relative to those who viewed less.
The Integrative Model of Variety Change 37 builds on social cognitive theory and integrates it with other theories, such as the Theory of Reasoned Action, 38 to predict that media exposure will influence behavior through shifts in behavioral intentions, which are themselves a function of attitudes, norms, and perceptions of self-efficacy acquired through media and other sources. Thus, media users learn not only what is likely to be the outcome of sexual activity, but also whether others engage in it or approve of it, and come to see themselves as more or less able to engage in similar activities themselves.
The RAND study 39 also looked at vaiety issues, finding that the vxriety between exposure to sexual content on television and intercourse initiation could be explained in whole by shifts in viewers' perceptions of themselves and their ability to negotiate sexual situations safe sex self-efficacytheir perceptions of peer norms regarding sexual activity, and their beliefs about the consequences of engaging in intercourse.
This strongly supports the integrative model's predictions. Closely related to social cognitive theory are script theories of media use.
Individuals not only learn whether a behavior is common and whether it will vagiety in positive outcomes, but they are also presented with a series of ordered events describing how and when it is appropriate to enact the behavior i.
These scripts are not always variety, but when events or circumstances in the environment trigger them for example, a first date or an unexpected kissthey may be acted out. Aubrey and varieyy 41 have applied this theory to sexual media, demonstrating correlations between television use and college-aged females' and males' expectations regarding timing and variety of sexual activities respectively.
Others eex used script theory to explain the effects of exposure to sexually objectifying portrayals and portrayals of sex as a game, arguing that these lead to the acting out of roles in which boys pursue sex and girls use it as leverage. Other theories may better predict the effects of new media, which offer a greater opportunity to select the content one prefers and allow the user to create and distribute, as variety as receive, content.
Furthermore, such content is often discussed and exchanged within social networks. The Media Practice Model 45 argues that media use is selective, with users focusing on content related to the predominant issues of interest to them. Thus, adolescents whose interest in sex is growing as a result of puberty and other forces are more likely to select media with sexual content.
Three studies have confirmed such a relationship empirically. Selective use of media in a social context may also set up the conditions for the "downward spiral" theorized by Slater and colleagues in relation to media violence.
This creates homogeneity in user preferences and characteristics, likely to lead to social reinforcement of the messages portrayed. That is, youth who are becoming vaariety in sex may encounter other sexually interested youth when they view sexual media online. And these youth are likely to express approval of sexual messages and portrayals. Sx, one might expect greater impact on users in this venue, compared to the same portrayal watched on a television set, particularly if viewers report chatting on the site, engaging in instant messaging, or sharing links with friends.
New media are often varuety via portable platforms, such as cell phones and MP3 devices. As such, there is opportunity for increased exposure, as well as more private exposure. Roberts et al. This is consistent with theories of "parental mediation" of media messages: Parents and other adults can greatly alter the impact of messages when they discuss them with youth.
In a report on young people's media use, the Kaiser Family Foundation found sex a total of 10 hours and 45 minutes of exposure are packed into 7.
That is, about 30 percent of adolescents' media time is spent using more than one medium simultaneously. This phenomenon seemed to have been enabled partly by the portability of media, which can now be viewed and used on laptops, cell phones, and other devices that youth carry throughout the day.
How might this influence media effects? Message processing theory might predict that multitasking distracts users from sexual information and thus reduces the effects of media exposure. Indeed, Jordan and colleagues 51 found that youth who did homework or other household tasks while using media were less affected by media content. In contrast, Collins 52 found that exposure to sexual content on television was more strongly related to sexual initiation among those who reported using the Internet at the same time that they watched television.
It is possible that the resolution to these conflicting findings lies in what youth are doing when they are online.
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Human sexual activityhuman sexual practice or human sexual behaviour is the manner in which humans experience and express vraiety sexuality. People engage in a variety of sexual acts, ranging from activities done alone e.
Sexual activity usually results in sexual arousal and physiological changes in the aroused person, some of which are pronounced while others are more subtle. Sexual activity may also include conduct and activities which are intended to arouse the sexual interest of another or enhance the sex life of another, such varietyy strategies to find or attract partners courtship and display behaviouror personal interactions between individuals for instance, foreplay or BDSM.
Sexual activity may follow sexual arousal. Human sexual activity has sociological, cognitive, emotionalbehavioural and biological aspects; these include personal bondingsharing emotions and the physiology of the reproductive systemsex drivesexual intercourse and sexual behaviour in all its forms.
In some cultures, sexual activity is considered acceptable only within marriage, while premarital and extramarital sex are taboo. Some sexual activities are illegal either universally or in some countries sex subnational jurisdictions, while some are considered contrary to the norms of certain societies or cultures.
Two examples sec are criminal offences in most jurisdictions are sexual assault and sexual activity with a person below the local age of consent. Sexual activity can be classified in a number of ways: acts which involve one person also called autoeroticism such as masturbationor two or more people such as vaginal sexanal sexoral sex or mutual masturbation. Penetrative sex between two variety may be described as sexual intercoursebut definitions vary. If there are varity than two participants in a sex act, it may be referred to sex group sex.
Autoerotic sexual activity can involve use of dildosvibratorsbutt plugsand other sex toysthough these devices can also be used with a partner. Sexual activity can be classified into the gender and sexual orientation of the participants, as well as by the relationship of the participants. For example, the relationships can be ones of marriage, intimate partnerscasual sex partners or anonymous. Sexual activity can be regarded as conventional or as alternativeinvolving, for example, fetishismsexor BDSM activities.
The object of desire can often be shoes, sex, lingerie, clothing, leather or rubber items. Some non-conventional autoerotic variety can be dangerous. These include erotic asphyxiation and self-bondage. The potential for injury or even death that exists while engaging in the partnered versions of these fetishes choking and bondagerespectively becomes drastically increased in the autoerotic case due to the isolation and lack of assistance in the event of a problem.
Sexual activity can be consensual, which means that both or all participants agree to take part and are of variety age that they can consent, or it may take place under force or duress, which is sex called sexual assault or rape. In different cultures and countries, various sexual activities may be lawful or illegal in regards to the age, gender, marital status or other factors of the variety, or otherwise contrary to social norms or generally accepted sexual morals.
In evolutionary psychology and behavioral ecologyhuman mating strategies are a set of behaviors used by individuals to attract, select, and retain mates. Mating strategies overlap with vqriety strategies, which encompass a broader set of behaviors involving the timing of reproduction and the avriety between quantity and quality of offspring see life variehy theory. Relative varietty other animals, human mating strategies are unique in their relationship with cultural variables such as the institution of marriage.
The human desire for companionship is one of the strongest human drives. It is an innate feature of human nature, and may be related to the sex drive. The human mating process encompasses the social and cultural processes whereby one person may meet another to assess suitability, the courtship process and the process of sex an interpersonal relationship. Commonalities, however, can be found between humans and nonhuman animals in mating behavior see animal sexual behavior.
The physiological responses during sexual stimulation are fairly similar for both men and women and there are four phases. Sexual dysfunction is the inability to react emotionally or physically to sexual stimulation in a way projected of the average healthy person; it can affect different stages in the sexual response cycles, which are desire, excitement and orgasm.
Sexual activity can lower blood pressure wex overall stress vairety, regardless of vatiety. From a biochemical perspective, sex causes the release of endorphins and increases levels of white blood cells that actually boost the immune system. A study published in the journal Biological Psychology described how men who had had sex the previous night responded better to stressful situations, it suggested that if a person is regularly sexual, they're regularly relaxed, and when the person is relaxed, they cope better with stressful situations.
Though it's usually a stress reliever, sex can become stressful when partners worry about their performance. People engage in sexual activity for any of a multitude of possible reasons. Although the primary evolutionary purpose of sexual activity is reproduction, research on college students suggested that people have sex for four general reasons: physical attractionas a means to an endto increase emotional connectionand to alleviate insecurity.
Most people engage in sexual activity because of pleasure they derive from the arousal of their sexualityespecially if they can achieve orgasm. Sexual arousal can also be experienced from foreplay and flirting, and from fetish or BDSM activities,  variety or other erotic activities. Most commonly, people engage in sexual activity because of the sexual desire varuety by a person to whom they feel sexual attraction ; but they may engage in sexual activity for the physical satisfaction they achieve in the absence of attraction for another, as in the case of casual or social sex.
A person may engage in variwty activity for purely ssex considerations, or to variety some advantage from either the partner or the activity. A man and woman may engage in sexual intercourse with the objective of conception.
Some people engage in hate sex, which occurs between two people who strongly dislike or annoy each other. It is related to the idea that opposition between two people can heighten sexual tensionattraction and interest.
It has been shown that sexual activity plays a large part in the interaction of social species. Joan Roughgardenin her book Diversity, Gender, and Sexuality in Nature and People, postulates that this applies equally to humans as it does to other social species. She explores the purpose of sexual activity and demonstrates that there are many functions facilitated by such activity vafiety pair bonding, group bonding, dispute resolution and reproduction. Research has found that people also engage in varieyt activity for reasons associated with self-determination varifty.
The self-determination theory can be applied to a sexual relationship when the participants varifty positive feelings associated with the relationship. These participants do not feel guilty or coerced into the partnership. The purpose of this model is to connect self-determination and sexual motivation. This model also links the positive outcomes, satisfying the need for autonomy, competence, and relatedness gained from sexual motivations.
According to the completed research associated with this model, it was found that people of both sexes who engaged in sexual activity for self-determined motivation had more positive psychological well-being. When this need was satisfied, they felt better about themselves.
This was correlated with greater closeness to their partner and higher overall satisfaction in their relationship. It was concluded that females had more motivation than males to engage in sexual activity for self-determined reasons. The frequency of sexual activity might range from zero sexual abstinence to 15 or 20 times a week. According to the Kinsey Institutethe average frequency of sexual intercourse in the US for individuals who have partners is times per year age 18—2986 times per year age 30—39and 69 times per year age 40— The age at which adolescents tend to become sexually active varies considerably between different cultures and from time to time.
See Prevalence of virginity. The first sexual act of a child or adolescent is sometimes referred to as the sexualization of the child, and may be considered as a milestone or a change of status, as variety loss vzriety virginity or innocence.
Youth are legally free to have intercourse after they reach the age of consent. This figure rises with each grade. Males are more sexually active than females at each of the grade levels surveyed.
Sexual activity of young adolescents differs in ethnicity as well. A higher percent of African American and Hispanic adolescents are shown to be more sexually active than White adolescents. Research on sexual frequency has also been conducted solely on female adolescents who engage in sexual activity.
Female adolescents tended to engage in more sexual variety due to positive mood. In female teenagers, engaging in sexual activity was directly positively correlated with being older, greater sexual activity in the previous week or prior day, and more positive mood the previous day or the same day as the sexual activity occurred.
Although opinions differ, others [ who? According to a research study, sexual experiences help teenagers understand pleasure and variety. The cross-sectional study was conducted in and at a rural upstate New York varlety. Teenagers who had their first sexual experience at age 16 revealed a higher well-being than those who were sexually inexperienced or who were first sexually active at a later age of Sexual activity is an innately physiological function,  but like other physical activity, it comes with risks.
Any sexual activity that involves the introduction of semen into a woman's vagina, such as during sexual intercourse, or even contact of semen with her vulva, may result in a pregnancy. Sexual activity that involves skin-to-skin swx, exposure to an infected person's bodily fluids or mucosal membranes  carries the risk of contracting a sexually transmitted infection. People may not be able to detect that their sexual partner has one or more Sex, for example if they are asymptomatic show no symptoms.
Both partners may opt be tested for STIs before engaging in sex. Crab sex typically are found attached to hair in the pubic area but sometimes are found on coarse hair elsewhere on the body for example, eyebrows, eyelashes, beard, mustache, chest, armpits, etc. Pubic lice infestations pthiriasis are spread through direct contact with varietg who is infested with the louse. Typically, older men and women maintaining interest in sexual interest and activity could be therapeutic; it is a way of expressing their love and care for one another.
Factors such as biological and psychological factors, diseases, mental conditions, boredom with the relationship, and widowhood have been found to contribute with the common decrease in sexual interest and activity in old age.
National sex surveys given in Finland in the s revealed aging men had a higher incidence of sexual intercourse compared to aging women and that women were more likely to report a lack of sexual desire compared to men. Regression analysis, factors considered important to female sexual activity included: sexual desire, valuing sexuality, and a healthy partner, while high sexual self-esteem, good health, and active sexual history were important to male sexual activity.
Both genders in the study agreed they needed good health, good sexual functioning, sex sexual self-esteem, and a sexually skilful partner to maintain sexual desire. Heterosexuality is the romantic or sexual attraction to the opposite sex.
Heterosexual sexual practices are subject to laws in many places. In some countries, mostly those where religion has a strong influence on social policymarriage laws serve the purpose of encouraging people to have sex only within marriage. Sodomy laws were seen as discouraging same-sex sexual practices, but may affect opposite-sex sexual practices. Laws also ban adults from committing sexual abusecommitting sexual acts sex anyone under an age of consentperforming sexual activities in public, and engaging in sexual activities for money prostitution.
Though these laws cover both same-sex and opposite-sex sexual activities, they may differ in regard to punishment, and may be more frequently or exclusively enforced on those who engage in same-sex sexual activities.
Different-sex sexual practices may be monogamousserially monogamous, or polyamorousand, depending on the definition of sexual practice, abstinent or autoerotic including masturbation. Additionally, different religious and political movements have tried to influence or control changes varity sexual practices including courting and marriage, though in most countries changes occur at a slow rate. Homosexuality is the romantic or sexual attraction to the same sex. People with a homosexual orientation can express their sexuality in a variety of ways, and may or may not express variety in their behaviors.
It is possible for a person whose sexual identity is mainly heterosexual to engage in sexual acts with people of the same sex. For example, mutual masturbation in the context of what sex be considered normal heterosexual teen development. Gay and lesbian people who pretend to be heterosexual are often referred to as being closeted hiding their sexuality in "the closet". Making that orientation public can be called " coming out of the closet " in the case of voluntary disclosure or " outing " in the case of disclosure by others against variety subject's wishes or without their knowledge.
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However, there have been four surveys or polls on the issue whose results have been published. According to one national survey conducted by the National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy the National Campaign 71 20 percent of teens aged years have sent or posted nude or seminude pictures or video of themselves. The number of youth posting or sending messages that are sexually suggestive but do not necessarily include pictures is approximately double these rates 39 percent.
Thirty-one percent of teens reported having received a nude or seminude picture via cell phone or email from someone i. A subsequent survey conducted by Cox Communications reported rates approximately half of these: Nine percent of teens years have sent, and 3 percent have forwarded, a nude or nearly nude photo via text or email.
Seventeen percent have received such a message. Ten percent of youth aged years reported sending images of themselves, and 22 percent have received naked images of someone else. It is difficult to point to a single factor that might account for this wide variety of estimates. The National Campaign survey was conducted online, and as such may have elicited more candid responses from participants than did Pew's phone survey.
It may also be a less representative sample, however, drawing a more Internet-savvy group than the average teen. Pew used a telephone survey and sampled randomly from those with cell phones and household landlines and may therefore have produced better estimates. The context of the questions also varied substantially i. Pew focused only on messages sent via cell phone, while Cox and the National Campaign asked respondents to include "email, IM, etc.
Finally, the substantial press coverage of sexting during the period covered by these studies may have changed the way adolescents think about and report their sexting experiences. Surveys conducted after major news stories may either exaggerate levels of sexting if youth wish to appear part of a trend or underestimate them if youth wish to disassociate themselves from a practice portrayed as risky or illegal. A clear understanding of the prevalence of these messages and the characteristics of those involved as senders or as recipients will require collection of data from a nationally representative survey using items that distinguish these various methods of digital communication and collection data in a nonreactive and private manner.
What are the correlates of sexting? None of the studies find gender differences in the sending or posting of sexual messages, 63 , 71 but they do find an increasing likelihood of sending and receiving these messages as teens reach young adulthood. It is unclear to what extent these various factors are independent contributors to sexting. It is likely that they are highly correlated, and multivariate analyses were not reported.
Most of these exchanges, like most online interaction, 84 are with persons already part of teens' offline social networks. The survey conducted by the National Campaign found that most teens sending these messages online or via cell phone sent them to a boyfriend or girlfriend 71 percent of girls and 67 percent of boys who have sent such messages.
Many also sent them to someone they wanted to date or "hook up" with 21 percent of girls and 39 percent of boys who have sent such messages. Thus, "sexting" may be an extension of behavior that was equally commonplace but involved paper and pencil or telephone audio in the past, although text messaging may be increasing the prevalence of sexually suggestive communication between sex partners, friends, and acquaintances. The ubiquity of cell phone ownership among youth, ease of communication, and the apparent tendency to be more disclosing via relatively impersonal digital media 88 could certainly lead to the latter.
Available data make it difficult to assess this, since no historical information on sexual messages between teens was published prior to the wide availability of the Internet and text messages. There is some indication that at least a portion of this behavior goes beyond the mere transfer of sexual messages from print to digital media.
Some teens report that they are more forward and aggressive in their use of sexual words and images online than offline. Thus, sexting may be resulting in greater exposure of youth to sexual messages, and greater incidence or prevalence of creating sexual messages among youth. If so, this may affect adolescents' developing attitudes toward sex or their sexual behavior.
It is important to note that sexting may also affect youth in ways other than through altering their sexual attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors. The ease with which sexual messages can be shared with very broad audiences suggests a greater potential to result in social stigma. One posting to a social networking profile, or one photo sent via cell phone, can quickly reach hundreds of people. Moreover, the difficulty of permanently deleting all copies of a digital message means that risks to college admission, employment, and personal relationships could persist for many years.
Most web information is available even after a site has been altered or deleted, and users can easily save and redistribute text messages and photos from their cell phones.
Evidence reviewed in the earlier section of this paper on prevalence and use of new media indicates that game playing, more than any other activity, crosses platforms. Playing offline, on consoles, handheld devices, and cell phones is currently more common than online play. Next, we review what is known about both on- and offline games and how they might provide opportunities for youth to be exposed to or otherwise engage with sexual content.
A few studies of the content of offline games played on consoles or computers but not connected to the Internet have been published. In one, Haninger and Thompson sampled 80 video games rated T "Teen" from the full population of such games that had been released by April The 80 games were randomly selected within strata reflecting 10 different game genres. Haninger and Thompson found that 27 percent of their sample 22 games contained sexual themes defined as "behaviors e.
When they expanded their definition of sexual material to also include "pronounced cleavage, large breasts, or provocative clothing," they estimated that 46 percent of games included sexual content. Games were significantly more likely to depict female characters partially nude or engaged in sexual behaviors as compared with male characters.
The same research group conducted a similar study of the content of M "Mature" -rated games. Thirty-six percent of the sample 13 games included sexual themes; only 15 percent of the sample had received a content descriptor from the ESRB that indicated this.
Sexual themes appeared for an average of 4. Prostitution appeared in 17 percent of games. The authors do not note this, but it appears from the tables that sexual behavior did not differ by gender. However, female characters were significantly more likely than male characters to appear partially nude.
When the definition of sexual material was expanded in the same way as for the authors' earlier study, 47 percent of games contained sexual content.
Other researchers have also found that women are scantily clad in video games, with one estimate suggesting that 28 percent of games contain depictions of women as sex objects.
Typically, women are wearing tank tops, halter tops, or bathing suits in these portrayals. When youth play games online, many interact with other players, sending instant messages or using voice-over-Internet protocols that allow them to meet others and socialize as they play.
However, it is unclear whether online gaming might influence sexual attitudes or behavior. To do so, it would need to involve sexual content either in the games or in exchanges with other players.
We did not identify any published studies addressing issues of sexual content in online games or in online gamers' interactions, nor did we uncover studies that identified sexual attitudes or behaviors as correlates of using those games. There is very little research evidence regarding the unintended effects of new media on sexual health, and more is clearly needed. The most thoroughly studied area is Internet pornography.
Research in this area indicates that intentional exposure to such depictions may influence adolescent attitudes, promoting more recreational attitudes toward sex.
But the research evidence has so far come from only one lab, and no longitudinal studies of U. There are also no longitudinal studies of sexual behavior or sexual risk-taking subsequent to viewing pornography on the Internet.
What indirect evidence there is regarding the prevalence of exposure among youth and the cross-sectional correlates indicates that this topic is worthy of further study, as there may well be negative effects on sexual health. The other area in which there has been considerable research is that of sexual solicitation via the Internet. Here, the research has focused primarily on the issue of whether youth who use a variety of online media might become victims of adult sexual predators.
The conclusion is that this is unlikely. Indeed, most of these solicitations come from same-age peers who are known offline. But there may be other negative effects of both receiving and generating these solicitations. Their presence may create a more sexualized, and perhaps a more sexually harassing, environment that affects those exposed, directly or as bystanders.
Here, again, such solicitation appears common enough that it may be worth pursuing additional research. A key issue in such research would be to separate the processes of selection and influence. The fact that youth who report receiving solicitations are likely to be involved in online harassment as victims or as perpetrators, and are often victims of child abuse, suggests a strong potentially biasing factor in understanding and estimating the effects of any exposure.
Similarly, the sending or receipt of sexual messages or text via cell phone or email does not appear to pose a direct threat to youth. But, like sexual solicitations more generally, it may contribute to a sexualized environment that affects normative perceptions. Longitudinal survey studies testing for relationships between exposure to or participation in sexting and changes in sexual attitudes, norms, and behavior among youth are needed.
Apart from issues of changes in sexual attitudes or behavior, it is also important to keep in mind that the creation of digital content, particularly nude or provocative photos of oneself, may pose other risks. Such content may be passed on to other teens, causing embarrassment at best and psychological distress at worst, or cached on websites where future employers, colleges, and others may find them. While it is the subject of much speculation, there are no studies so far that test for links between sexting and these important social and mental health outcomes.
Results suggest that there is a substantial amount of sexual content in teen chat rooms, both constructed by teens names, utterances and present for teen users to be exposed to as observers. It is also clear that the majority of users do not create such content, though the number of those who do is not insubstantial.
A useful next step would be to study the evolution of users over time to understand to what extent those who are not generating sexual posts initially come to do so later, and to what extent users continue with or leave these sites as they are exposed to or participate in the creation of sexual messages.
Because chat rooms are not particularly popular with teens, it may be wise to focus such efforts on Internet sites and activities that resemble chats but have not yet received much study, such as discussions among participants in online video games, posted comments on YouTube, and comments on social networking sites. Selection versus influence is also an important issue in understanding any effects of visiting social networking sites. The data reviewed above indicate that sexual references are common on public pages.
An adolescent who browses profiles on MySpace or YouTube is likely to encounter sexual references or pictures in anywhere from 15 to 24 percent of profiles. It is unknown, and perhaps undeterminable, what percentage of private profiles contain sexual references.
But it is reasonable to believe that youth who use these sites encounter sexual messages suggesting that casual sex is normative and reflect a preoccupation with sexuality. Nonetheless, most youth who visit these sites do so to check in with people they already know, at least indirectly, and so they may encounter messages that simply support what they were already hearing from offline peers.
The Moreno study 88 showing homophily in the sexual references that appear on friends' profiles indicates as much. Analyses that look at the evolution of sexual information in profiles over time, within online networks, might help to separate selection and influence processes and determine the extent to which online interaction alters young people's developing sexual attitudes and behaviors.
Even if such work suggests that there may be online network influences on teens' behavior, in order to fully understand them, it will be important to try to estimate the magnitude of these associations relative to offline processes of peer influence.
Because the Internet is a mass medium, selection processes might be exaggerated over those offline. Thus, we might see a greater tendency for similar people to associate than would be observed offline. For the same reason, influence processes may be greater: Unusual beliefs that would otherwise fail to find validation in everyday life may be normalized when other persons are encountered who share these beliefs.
The Internet may create the illusion of consensus because someone can be found to support one's ideas, even when the number of such people is actually quite small. But it is also possible that association patterns will be no different from those observed in offline networks, or when they do differ, may have a smaller influence on those who participate.
The apparent distancing of oneself that has been conjectured to lead to sexualized and calloused online interactions may also buffer people from the effects of online interactions.
Estimates regarding the amount of sexual content in video games indicate high levels, with percent of games containing explicitly sexual language or pictures and percent containing sexualized images of women.
Given the large number of studies that have looked at violent content in these games and its possible effects, it would seem appropriate and fairly straightforward to conduct analogous work regarding sexual content in games.
It may be that this content, because it appears to be less integral to game play than violence, is not particularly likely to influence teens.
However, because youth are currently spending more time with this activity than with any other except listening to music and watching television, an understanding of effects on sexual attitudes and associations with subsequent behavior should be a priority. Glaringly absent from the research literature, given its popularity with youth, are studies of YouTube or other online video sites.
Visits to YouTube are among the top three online activities identified by the Kaiser Family Foundation, and while we uncovered no relevant content analyses, a quick search of the website youtube. YouTube allows the creation of personal profiles and networks of friends, as well as the posting of comments about each video.
Thus, it also affords many of the same opportunities for social influence and sexual involvement provided by more general social networking sites. Among the gaps we have identified, this is perhaps the one that needs to be filled most urgently.
Research addressing a variety of issues related to new media is sorely needed in order to understand whether their use contributes to the sexual socialization and sexual behavior of U. Digital media interventions involve the use of computers, the Internet, cell phones, and video games to try to improve sexual health or reduce risky sexual behavior. Given their reach and the level of youth involvement, digital media have tremendous capacity to reduce sexual risk-taking. Other advantages of cell phone and Internet interventions include the ability to reach populations isolated by rural location, lack of transportation, or stigma.
For teens who may fear being seen entering an intervention facility or who may have to account for their whereabouts during free time, an intervention that can be accessed in a private area at home, at school, in a library, or on a bus may afford both access and privacy.
Noar and colleagues have discussed some additional advantages, including the inherent scalability of the intervention i. It is also possible to eliminate or greatly reduce the training of facilitators and ensure fidelity through the use of standardized materials.
Perhaps the greatest advantage in terms of potential program efficacy is that digital interfaces allow individualized and interactive intervention.
In the past, video or print materials were largely limited to use in didactic programs, but cell phone and Internet-based intervention make it possible to create multiple pathways through such materials in response to participants' individual inputs.
For example, this could be achieved by exposing boys and girls to different information based on their reported gender, or providing information about condom use to sexually active youth and information about abstinence to those who have never had sex.
Increasing evidence suggests that tailored interventions are more effective in changing behavior and that discussion leads to greater change than didactic intervention.
Digital formats can also lend themselves to simplified evaluation, automatically or very easily collecting data from participants see Pequegnat et al. There may also, however, be some downsides to digital intervention. It is possible that youth pay less attention to material when it is presented online or on a cell phone, since there is sometimes no teacher or group facilitator present to keep them on task.
Users might also skip through the material or miss entire modules of a program, likely reducing effectiveness.
We encountered no data on fidelity of delivery and use of new media interventions; collecting such information should be part of future intervention evaluations just as it is in offline research. Many organizations promoting sexual health appear to be taking advantage of youths' online participation. We reviewed the published literature on the development and evaluation of sexual risk interventions and also attempted to identify promising programs that have not yet been subject to evaluation.
Table 2 provides an overview of studies that have been evaluated. Following the table, we describe what we found in detail. Two studies have examined text messaging as a method of reaching youth with sexual health information. Such studies of "reach" look at how many individuals receive a message and often consider who is reached and the barriers and facilitators of message receipt rather than message effects on beliefs, attitudes, or behavior.
Cornelius and St. Lawrence conducted a qualitative exploration of the feasibility of using text messaging among African-American adolescents to supplement the Becoming a Responsible Teen BART intervention.
BART appears on the U. The study included two focus groups with a total of 14 participants, aged years, and a small survey of the same group. Participants were enthusiastic about using text messages to supplement an existing HIV prevention curriculum the existing curriculum involved multiple in-person group sessions designed to build skills and knowledge.
The authors noted that the use of such messages as a booster post-intervention may help to prolong curriculum effects, which typically diminish over time. The optimal number of messages per day ranged from one to three, with participants perceiving more messages as desensitizing recipients to the information they contain. Other potential issues noted included the best time of day for receiving messages, how to pay the costs of a messaging plan without creating abuse of the service for personal messages, and what to do about phones lost or damaged by participants the study was considering providing these phones.
Because the original HIV prevention curriculum involved participants in creating the intervention and emphasized communication skills, the focus groups were asked about creating as well as receiving messages, a procedure that would take advantage of the interactive nature of digital media in attempting to change sexual risk behavior.
Participants were also excited about the possibility of designing and sending text messages themselves. They suggested formats for adapting the curriculum to text messaging, including sending a fact-based message to intervention participants as a multiple-choice or true-false question that could be responded to with a return text indicating "A," "B," or "C," or "T" or "F," for example. It was emphasized that messages and responses should be quick and simple.
The San Francisco Department of Public Health has implemented a text messaging intervention for African-American youth, based on a program developed in London. This links them to a menu of options, asking them to, for example, text "B2 if u think ur pregnant," and responds with basic information and referrals for diagnosis or other consultation.
Responses were no more than characters in length and developed by health educators in conjunction with focus group participants. The messaging service is supplemented by a website that shows examples of these messages.
The program was promoted with posters, street marketing, and banner ads on Yahoo! As reported by Levine and colleagues, the messaging service received 4, texts in its first 25 weeks.
Surveys of two convenience samples of youth suggested that it reached the target demographic of African-American youth.
Of those who remembered seeing ads for the service, "nearly 10 percent" reported that they had used it. The surveys also found that those with less expensive cell phone providers were more likely to report awareness of the SEXINFO program, and those who remembered seeing ads for the service stated that the use of text messaging caught their attention.
It is important to note that the focus groups used to develop the SEXINFO cell phone intervention felt that it was important for users to initiate the messaging themselves, not the intervention provider. It is not possible for those who use such services to be fully anonymous, since their phone numbers are accessible to the intervention providers. Many users may be unaware of this when they decide to use the service.
The service provides weekly sexual health messages. Users can get further information in two ways, noted in each weekly text. They can get the same referrals and additional sexual health information by visiting a website. After nine months, 2, subscriptions had been received from across the state, and 33 percent of users had obtained clinic referrals via text message.
But it is unknown whether subscribers are in the target age range or at high risk of STIs; some subscribers might even be sexual health professionals interested in trying the program rather than using its services.
Another text messaging intervention that has yet to be fully evaluated used cell phones as a method of communicating STI test results to youth tested in Washington, DC, high schools. Youth who opted in to the text message system received a text notifying them when their results were available.
All participants were able to call a toll-free number to receive results, counseling, and referrals, as appropriate. A series of three studies involving a total of nearly 8, youth and 33 schools was conducted. Results appear promising. Across venues, percent of those attending the informational session provided a urine specimen, and an STI was detected among percent of these. Follow-up confirmed that treatment was received by percent of those who tested positive.
However, a full write-up of these results has yet to be completed, and findings have not undergone peer review to date. A third study did not look specifically at cell phones but was conducted with potential cell phone applications in mind.
It examined the use of a handheld computer with a four-inch screen to deliver a video soap opera intended to influence cognition and behavior related to sexual risk for HIV. The intervention video, the minute A Story About Toni, Mike, and Valerie , was designed to challenge "internal sexual scripts" that suggest that women use sex as a way of winning and holding onto men, and unprotected sex as particularly serving that function. To this end, the actors revisited scenes and discussed different reactions through which the female character might have asserted power e.
The study found that viewers were less likely to complete a second unfinished story in a manner consistent with stereotypical gender roles e. This suggests their "internal sexual scripts" ideas about where and when certain kinds of sexual behavior are appropriate were less linked to unprotected sex. The authors point to the adaptability of such an intervention to the streaming of video to smartphones, and thus the potential opportunity to deliver entertainment with embedded sexual health messages to youth.
Freimuth and colleagues explored viral dissemination of a video designed to promote HIV testing among young men. This not-yet-published study highlights some of the difficulties of studying this phenomenon using controlled research protocols.
Video was sent to participants' cell phones all participants were screened to ensure that their phones had this capability. After viewing the video and answering a few questions, participants then sent the video to the phones of two additional individuals, whose contact information was provided to researchers for follow-up. The study found that only 15 percent of those who were sent the video by "seed" participants recalled receiving it, and a much smaller percentage reported that they passed it on to an additional contact for viewing.
It is unknown whether the low rate of dissemination was an artifact of the appeal of the particular video studied, the fact that the video was about HIV testing i.
Individuals could participate in the intervention without using text messaging or even a cell phone. However, 43 percent of participants in one of the studies opted into the text message notification that results were ready this was not reported for the other two studies. Anecdotally, the program staff believes that cell phones and the availability of texting increased participation and were preferred communication modes for many youth.
However, in the long run, as the novelty of text messaging and cell phones wears off, unless programs make use of the mobility feature that is unique to cell phones e.
In spite of their popularity with youth and great potential to harness social influence processes among interconnected peers, we encountered only one evaluation of an online intervention involving social networking sites. In an adjunct to their study of the risk behaviors displayed by young adults with profiles on MySpace, Moreno and colleagues sent an email from "Dr Meg," to users who made three or more references to sexual behaviors or substance use in their profiles.
Recipients of the email were a randomly selected subgroup of this population, with the remainder serving as controls. The email warned that there might be risks to disclosing information about sex and substance use in one's online profile and encouraged the recipient to consider revising his or her information.
At follow-up, Reductions in the control group were 5. In addition, there was a trend for the intervention group to reset their profiles to private Although changes were small and not statistically significant, the study shows the feasibility and potential effectiveness of a simple intervention using social networking sites. Other computer-based interventions have used more traditional approaches, taking advantage of computer or Internet platforms to varying degrees.
It's Your Game: Keep it Real is a middle school sexual health program that includes computer components along with a more traditional classroom intervention: a virtual world interface, educational activities such as quizzes and fact sheets, and teen serials that allow real-time classroom discussion. The intervention was tested in schools in Southeast Texas with a predominantly African-American and Hispanic, low-income, urban student population.
The program consists of 12 seventh-grade and 12 eighth-grade lessons. Effectiveness was compared to treatment-as-usual health classes. Approximately one in three students in the comparison condition initiated sex by ninth-grade follow-up, compared with about one in four youth in the intervention group. After adjusting for covariates, students in the comparison condition were 1.
Detailed analyses indicated there were differences in initiation of vaginal, anal, and oral sex in a variety of subgroups. Program effects on initiation of vaginal intercourse were comparable in size to other effective interventions.
The intervention also produced shifts in attitudes, self-efficacy, and knowledge at eighth-grade follow-up, some of which were sustained to grade 9. Conclusions are limited by the study's failure to follow program and comparison group dropouts; program effectiveness may be specific to those who are willing to remain in the study.
However, the researchers found no evidence that dropouts tended to be higher-risk youth. A key limitation for the purposes of this review is that program components were not isolated in the study design. Thus, it cannot be determined whether the computer components of the study are effective on their own, or even whether they add to the effectiveness of the rest of the curriculum.
Two other interventions have also produced changes in adolescent sexual risk. The positive consequences of condom use and modeling of safe behavior were repeatedly shown in the intervention, and viewers were asked to cognitively rehearse practice in their heads what they would say or do in the situation.
The video incorporated specific choice points and behavioral alternatives, with selections determining the remainder of the storyline i. Users were also allowed to select the particular sections of the video program that they were most interested in using. Because many did skip sections, the one-hour video typically took less than that time to complete.
Boosters were delivered at one, three, and six months. Participants in the evaluation of "What Could You Do? Those in the intervention were compared to two randomized controls, girls who received the same content in book form and girls who received preexisting high-quality sexual health informational brochures. Greater abstinence and reduced condom failure were observed at three-month follow-up, and there were fewer self-reported diagnoses with an STI at six months among video participants when compared to controls.
Lightfoot and colleagues also compared the efficacy of a computer-based intervention to the same information delivered in person in a small-group setting , as well as to a no-exposure control. The program evaluated was Project LIGHT, an intervention with previously established efficacy in increasing adolescent condom use. Adolescents aged attending alternative schools participated, and all three groups were assessed at baseline and three months. Results showed a reduction in rates of self-reported sexual activity among computer-based participants versus those participating in small groups, and both of these groups had fewer self-reported sex partners compared to the controls.
This is the only intervention we encountered that looked at behavioral outcomes and compared a computer-based intervention to an efficacious "in-person" delivery of the same program. The lead author confirms that assignment to condition was at the school level Lightfoot, personal communication, July 10, , making it difficult to be certain that effects were due to the intervention and not another factor that varied across schools. Another unnamed intervention that has been evaluated is an online seven-week intervention consisting of six activities or modules.
Each module was posted online for one week, and all were posted during the final "make-up" week. Activities included completing surveys and quizzes and receiving feedback, going on a "virtual date," and competing in a "delaying tactics" contest to generate strategies for waiting to have sex.
Each session took about 15 minutes to complete. Among the ninth-grade adolescents who participated, the program successfully increased sexual knowledge, condom use self-efficacy, and perceived susceptibility to HIV while creating more positive attitudes toward waiting to have sex, relative to changes observed in a control group. College-age youth have also been targeted with online interventions.
YouthNet recruited to year-olds through banner ads or direct website access i. Although participants were asked for extensive identifying information, 20 percent of participants enrolling online were removed based on excessive inconsistencies in responses or duplicate enrollments, indicating the potential problems in enrolling a sample via the Internet.
They discuss how long the play will last, the intensity, their actions, what each participant needs or desires. The sexual acts are all recorded as consensual and pleasurable to both parties. In a study, interviewed BDSM participants have mentioned that the activities have helped to create higher levels of connection, intimacy, trust and communication between partners.
The participants have remarked that they enjoy pleasing their partner in any way they can and many surveyed have felt that this is one of the best things about BDSM. It gives a submissive pleasure to do things in general for their dominant. Where a Dominant enjoys making their encounters all about the submissive. They enjoy doing things that makes their submissive happy. The findings indicate that the surveyed submissives and dominants found BDSM play more pleasurable and fun.
The participants have also mentioned improvements in their personal growth, romantic relationships, sense of community and self, the dominant's confidence, and their coping with everyday things by giving them a psychological release. There are many laws and social customs which prohibit, or in some way affect sexual activities.
These laws and customs vary from country to country, and have varied over time. They cover, for example, a prohibition to non-consensual sex, to sex outside marriage, to sexual activity in public, besides many others. Many of these restrictions are non-controversial, but some have been the subject of public debate.
Most societies consider it a serious crime to force someone to engage in sexual acts or to engage in sexual activity with someone who does not consent.
This is called sexual assault , and if sexual penetration occurs it is called rape, the most serious kind of sexual assault. The details of this distinction may vary among different legal jurisdictions. Also, what constitutes effective consent in sexual matters varies from culture to culture and is frequently debated.
Laws regulating the minimum age at which a person can consent to have sex age of consent are frequently the subject of debate, as is adolescent sexual behavior in general.
Some societies have forced marriage, where consent may not be required. Many locales have laws that limit or prohibit same-sex sexual activity. In the West, sex before marriage is not illegal [ example needed ]. There are social taboos and many religions condemn pre-marital sex. Those found guilty, especially women, may be forced to wed the sexual partner, publicly beaten, or stoned to death. Other studies have analyzed the changing attitudes about sex that American adolescents have outside marriage.
Adolescents were asked how they felt about oral and vaginal sex in relation to their health, social, and emotional well-being. Overall, teenagers felt that oral sex was viewed as more socially positive amongst their demographic. The laws of each jurisdiction set the minimum age at which a young person is allowed to engage in sexual activity. In many jurisdictions, age of consent is a person's mental or functional age.
Age of consent may vary by the type of sexual act, the sex of the actors, or other restrictions such as abuse of a position of trust. Some jurisdictions also make allowances for young people engaged in sexual acts with each other. Most jurisdictions prohibit sexual activity between certain close relatives.
These laws vary to some extent; such acts are called incestuous. Non-consensual sexual activity or subjecting an unwilling person to witnessing a sexual activity are forms of sexual abuse , as well as in many countries certain non-consensual paraphilias such as frotteurism , telephone scatophilia indecent phonecalls , and non-consensual exhibitionism and voyeurism known as " indecent exposure " and " peeping tom " respectively. People sometimes exchange sex for money or access to other resources.
Work takes place under many varied circumstances. The person who receives payment for sexual services is called a prostitute and the person who receives such services is known by a multitude of terms, including and most commonly "john.
The legal status of prostitution varies from country to country , from being a punishable crime to a regulated profession. Survival sex is a form of prostitution engaged in by people in need, usually when homeless or otherwise disadvantaged people trade sex for food, a place to sleep, or other basic needs , or for drugs.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 25 November This article is about sexual practices and related social aspects. For broader aspects of sexual behaviour, see Human sexuality. For sexual behaviour of other animals, see Animal sexual behaviour. Human behaviour which is sexually motivated. Erection Orgasm Ejaculation Female ejaculation Sexual arousal.
Positions and stimulation. Practices by type. Gay men Lesbian Taoist. Health aspects. Birth control Safe sex Sexual dysfunction Sexual medicine Sex therapy Sexually transmitted infection. Ethics and society. Sex education Sexual attraction Sexual orientation. For the American rock band, see Pity Sex. The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this section , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate.
June Learn how and when to remove this template message. See also: Sexually active life expectancy. See also: Adolescent sexuality. Main article: Unintended pregnancy. Main article: Sexually transmitted infection. See also: Sexuality in older age. Main article: Sexual orientation. Main article: Heterosexuality. Main article: Homosexuality. See also: Gay sexual practices and Lesbian sexual practices. Main articles: Bisexuality and Pansexuality.
Main articles: Sexual morality , Religion and sexuality , and Norm sociology. Khajuraho Hindu and Jain temple complex is famous for erotic arts. Main article: BDSM. Main article: Sex and the law. Main article: LGBT rights by country or territory. Main article: Age of consent.
This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Legality of incest. Main articles: Sexual abuse , Rape , and Sexual assault.
Main article: Prostitution. Human sexuality portal. Child sexuality Erotic plasticity History of human sexuality Human female sexuality Human male sexuality Lesbian sexual practices Mechanics of human sexuality Orgasm control Orgastic potency Sexual activity during pregnancy Sociosexual orientation Transgender sexuality.
Channel 4. Archived from the original on 4 May Retrieved 30 June Think again — Sexual Fitness — physiology Men's Fitness". Archived from the original on 26 May Ecological and socio-cultural impacts on mating and marriage.
Oxford Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology, Schacter; Daniel T. Gilbert; Daniel M. Wegner Retrieved 10 November Human Sexuality: From Cells to Society.
Cengage Learning. Retrieved 17 September University of California, Santa Barbara. Archived from the original on 25 July Retrieved 6 August Weiner; W. Edward Craighead The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology, Volume 2. Sexual Activity and Sexual Desire. Routledge, 46 1. Archived from the original on 6 December Retrieved 24 December Men's Fitness. Retrieved 25 December The masks of hate: the problem of false solutions in the culture of an acquisitive society.
Pergamon Press. Diversity, Gender, and Sexuality in Nature and People. University of California Press. J Pers Soc Psychol. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. Foundations of Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing. New York: W. Saunders Company.
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